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Assessing Risk Prediction Models Using Individual Participant Data From Multiple Studies

Individual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiologic studies enable detailed investigation into the predictive ability of risk models. Here we address the challenges in appropriately combining such information across studies. Methods are exemplified by analyses of log C-... Full description

Journal Title: American Journal of Epidemiology 2014, Vol. 179(5), pp.621-632
Main Author: Pennells, Lisa
Other Authors: Kaptoge, Stephen , White, Ian R , Thompson, Simon G , Wood, Angela M , Tipping, Robert W , Folsom, Aaron R , Couper, David J , Ballantyne, Christie M , Coresh, Josef , Goya Wannamethee, S , Morris, Richard W , Kiechl, Stefan , Willeit, Johann , Willeit, Peter , Schett, Georg , Ebrahim, Shah , Lawlor, Debbie A , Yarnell, John W , Gallacher, John , Cushman, Mary , Psaty, Bruce M , Tracy, Russ , Tybjærg - Hansen, Anne , Price, Jackie F , Lee, Amanda J , Mclachlan, Stela , Khaw, Kay - Tee , Wareham, Nicholas J , Brenner, Hermann , Schöttker, Ben , Müller, Heiko , Jansson, Jan - Håkan , Wennberg, Patrik , Salomaa, Veikko , Harald, Kennet , Jousilahti, Pekka , Vartiainen, Erkki , Woodward, Mark , D'Agostino, Ralph B , Bladbjerg, Else - Marie , Jørgensen, Torben , Kiyohara, Yutaka , Arima, Hisatomi , Doi, Yasufumi , Ninomiya, Toshiharu , Dekker, Jacqueline M , Nijpels, Giel , Stehouwer, Coen D. A , Kauhanen, Jussi , Salonen, Jukka T , Meade, Tom W , Cooper, Jackie A , Cushman, Mary , Folsom, Aaron R , Psaty, Bruce M , Shea, Steven , Döring, Angela , Kuller, Lewis H , Grandits, Greg , Gillum, Richard F , Mussolino, Michael , Rimm, Eric B , Hankinson, Sue E , Manson, Joann E , Pai, Jennifer K , Kirkland, Susan , Shaffer, Jonathan A , Shimbo, Daichi , Bakker, Stephan J. L , Gansevoort, Ron T , Hillege, Hans L , Amouyel, Philippe , Arveiler, Dominique , Evans, Alun , Ferrières, Jean , Sattar, Naveed , Westendorp, Rudi G , Buckley, Brendan M , Cantin, Bernard , Lamarche, Benoît , Barrett - Connor, Elizabeth , Wingard, Deborah L , Bettencourt, Richele , Gudnason, Vilmundur , Aspelund, Thor , Sigurdsson, Gunnar , Thorsson, Bolli , Kavousi, Maryam , Witteman, Jacqueline C , Hofman, Albert , Franco, Oscar H , Howard, Barbara V , Zhang, Ying , Best, Lyle , Umans, Jason G , Onat, Altan , Sundström, Johan , Michael Gaziano, J , Stampfer, Meir , Ridker, Paul M , Michael Gaziano, J , Ridker, Paul M , Marmot, Michael , Clarke, Robert , Collins, Rory , Fletcher, Astrid , Brunner, Eric , Shipley, Martin , Kivimäki, Mika , Ridker, Paul M , Buring, Julie , Cook, Nancy , Ford, Ian , Shepherd, James , Cobbe, Stuart M , Robertson, Michele , Walker, Matthew , Watson, Sarah , Alexander, Myriam , Butterworth, Adam S , Angelantonio, Emanuele Di , Gao, Pei , Haycock, Philip , Kaptoge, Stephen , Pennells, Lisa , Thompson, Simon G , Walker, Matthew , Watson, Sarah , White, Ian R , Wood, Angela M , Wormser, David , Danesh, John
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ID: ISSN: 0002-9262 ; E-ISSN: 1476-6256 ; DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwt298
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recordid: oxford10.1093/aje/kwt298
title: Assessing Risk Prediction Models Using Individual Participant Data From Multiple Studies
format: Article
creator:
  • Pennells, Lisa
  • Kaptoge, Stephen
  • White, Ian R
  • Thompson, Simon G
  • Wood, Angela M
  • Tipping, Robert W
  • Folsom, Aaron R
  • Couper, David J
  • Ballantyne, Christie M
  • Coresh, Josef
  • Goya Wannamethee, S
  • Morris, Richard W
  • Kiechl, Stefan
  • Willeit, Johann
  • Willeit, Peter
  • Schett, Georg
  • Ebrahim, Shah
  • Lawlor, Debbie A
  • Yarnell, John W
  • Gallacher, John
  • Cushman, Mary
  • Psaty, Bruce M
  • Tracy, Russ
  • Tybjærg - Hansen, Anne
  • Price, Jackie F
  • Lee, Amanda J
  • Mclachlan, Stela
  • Khaw, Kay - Tee
  • Wareham, Nicholas J
  • Brenner, Hermann
  • Schöttker, Ben
  • Müller, Heiko
  • Jansson, Jan - Håkan
  • Wennberg, Patrik
  • Salomaa, Veikko
  • Harald, Kennet
  • Jousilahti, Pekka
  • Vartiainen, Erkki
  • Woodward, Mark
  • D'Agostino, Ralph B
  • Bladbjerg, Else - Marie
  • Jørgensen, Torben
  • Kiyohara, Yutaka
  • Arima, Hisatomi
  • Doi, Yasufumi
  • Ninomiya, Toshiharu
  • Dekker, Jacqueline M
  • Nijpels, Giel
  • Stehouwer, Coen D. A
  • Kauhanen, Jussi
  • Salonen, Jukka T
  • Meade, Tom W
  • Cooper, Jackie A
  • Cushman, Mary
  • Folsom, Aaron R
  • Psaty, Bruce M
  • Shea, Steven
  • Döring, Angela
  • Kuller, Lewis H
  • Grandits, Greg
  • Gillum, Richard F
  • Mussolino, Michael
  • Rimm, Eric B
  • Hankinson, Sue E
  • Manson, Joann E
  • Pai, Jennifer K
  • Kirkland, Susan
  • Shaffer, Jonathan A
  • Shimbo, Daichi
  • Bakker, Stephan J. L
  • Gansevoort, Ron T
  • Hillege, Hans L
  • Amouyel, Philippe
  • Arveiler, Dominique
  • Evans, Alun
  • Ferrières, Jean
  • Sattar, Naveed
  • Westendorp, Rudi G
  • Buckley, Brendan M
  • Cantin, Bernard
  • Lamarche, Benoît
  • Barrett - Connor, Elizabeth
  • Wingard, Deborah L
  • Bettencourt, Richele
  • Gudnason, Vilmundur
  • Aspelund, Thor
  • Sigurdsson, Gunnar
  • Thorsson, Bolli
  • Kavousi, Maryam
  • Witteman, Jacqueline C
  • Hofman, Albert
  • Franco, Oscar H
  • Howard, Barbara V
  • Zhang, Ying
  • Best, Lyle
  • Umans, Jason G
  • Onat, Altan
  • Sundström, Johan
  • Michael Gaziano, J
  • Stampfer, Meir
  • Ridker, Paul M
  • Michael Gaziano, J
  • Ridker, Paul M
  • Marmot, Michael
  • Clarke, Robert
  • Collins, Rory
  • Fletcher, Astrid
  • Brunner, Eric
  • Shipley, Martin
  • Kivimäki, Mika
  • Ridker, Paul M
  • Buring, Julie
  • Cook, Nancy
  • Ford, Ian
  • Shepherd, James
  • Cobbe, Stuart M
  • Robertson, Michele
  • Walker, Matthew
  • Watson, Sarah
  • Alexander, Myriam
  • Butterworth, Adam S
  • Angelantonio, Emanuele Di
  • Gao, Pei
  • Haycock, Philip
  • Kaptoge, Stephen
  • Pennells, Lisa
  • Thompson, Simon G
  • Walker, Matthew
  • Watson, Sarah
  • White, Ian R
  • Wood, Angela M
  • Wormser, David
  • Danesh, John
subjects:
  • C Index
  • Coronary Heart Disease
  • D Measure
  • Individual Participant Data
  • Inverse Variance
  • Meta - Analysis
  • Risk Prediction
  • Weighting
ispartof: American Journal of Epidemiology, 2014, Vol. 179(5), pp.621-632
description: Individual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiologic studies enable detailed investigation into the predictive ability of risk models. Here we address the challenges in appropriately combining such information across studies. Methods are exemplified by analyses of log C-reactive protein and conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, a collation of individual data from multiple prospective studies with an average follow-up duration of 9.8 years (dates varied). We derive risk prediction models using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis stratified by study and obtain estimates of risk discrimination, Harrell's concordance index, and Royston's discrimination measure within each study; we then combine the estimates across studies using a weighted meta-analysis. Various weighting approaches are compared and lead us to recommend using the number of events in each study. We also discuss the calculation of measures of reclassification for multiple studies. We further show that comparison of differences in predictive ability across subgroups should be based only on within-study information and that combining measures of risk discrimination from case-control studies and prospective studies is problematic. The concordance index and discrimination measure gave qualitatively similar results throughout. While the concordance index was very heterogeneous between studies, principally because of differing age ranges, the increments in the concordance index from adding log C-reactive protein to conventional risk factors were more homogeneous.
language:
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0002-9262 ; E-ISSN: 1476-6256 ; DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwt298
fulltext: fulltext_linktorsrc
issn:
  • 0002-9262
  • 00029262
  • 1476-6256
  • 14766256
url: Link


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titleAssessing Risk Prediction Models Using Individual Participant Data From Multiple Studies
creatorPennells, Lisa ; Kaptoge, Stephen ; White, Ian R ; Thompson, Simon G ; Wood, Angela M ; Tipping, Robert W ; Folsom, Aaron R ; Couper, David J ; Ballantyne, Christie M ; Coresh, Josef ; Goya Wannamethee, S ; Morris, Richard W ; Kiechl, Stefan ; Willeit, Johann ; Willeit, Peter ; Schett, Georg ; Ebrahim, Shah ; Lawlor, Debbie A ; Yarnell, John W ; Gallacher, John ; Cushman, Mary ; Psaty, Bruce M ; Tracy, Russ ; Tybjærg - Hansen, Anne ; Price, Jackie F ; Lee, Amanda J ; Mclachlan, Stela ; Khaw, Kay - Tee ; Wareham, Nicholas J ; Brenner, Hermann ; Schöttker, Ben ; Müller, Heiko ; Jansson, Jan - Håkan ; Wennberg, Patrik ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Harald, Kennet ; Jousilahti, Pekka ; Vartiainen, Erkki ; Woodward, Mark ; D'Agostino, Ralph B ; Bladbjerg, Else - Marie ; Jørgensen, Torben ; Kiyohara, Yutaka ; Arima, Hisatomi ; Doi, Yasufumi ; Ninomiya, Toshiharu ; Dekker, Jacqueline M ; Nijpels, Giel ; Stehouwer, Coen D. A ; Kauhanen, Jussi ; Salonen, Jukka T ; Meade, Tom W ; Cooper, Jackie A ; Cushman, Mary ; Folsom, Aaron R ; Psaty, Bruce M ; Shea, Steven ; Döring, Angela ; Kuller, Lewis H ; Grandits, Greg ; Gillum, Richard F ; Mussolino, Michael ; Rimm, Eric B ; Hankinson, Sue E ; Manson, Joann E ; Pai, Jennifer K ; Kirkland, Susan ; Shaffer, Jonathan A ; Shimbo, Daichi ; Bakker, Stephan J. L ; Gansevoort, Ron T ; Hillege, Hans L ; Amouyel, Philippe ; Arveiler, Dominique ; Evans, Alun ; Ferrières, Jean ; Sattar, Naveed ; Westendorp, Rudi G ; Buckley, Brendan M ; Cantin, Bernard ; Lamarche, Benoît ; Barrett - Connor, Elizabeth ; Wingard, Deborah L ; Bettencourt, Richele ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Aspelund, Thor ; Sigurdsson, Gunnar ; Thorsson, Bolli ; Kavousi, Maryam ; Witteman, Jacqueline C ; Hofman, Albert ; Franco, Oscar H ; Howard, Barbara V ; Zhang, Ying ; Best, Lyle ; Umans, Jason G ; Onat, Altan ; Sundström, Johan ; Michael Gaziano, J ; Stampfer, Meir ; Ridker, Paul M ; Michael Gaziano, J ; Ridker, Paul M ; Marmot, Michael ; Clarke, Robert ; Collins, Rory ; Fletcher, Astrid ; Brunner, Eric ; Shipley, Martin ; Kivimäki, Mika ; Ridker, Paul M ; Buring, Julie ; Cook, Nancy ; Ford, Ian ; Shepherd, James ; Cobbe, Stuart M ; Robertson, Michele ; Walker, Matthew ; Watson, Sarah ; Alexander, Myriam ; Butterworth, Adam S ; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di ; Gao, Pei ; Haycock, Philip ; Kaptoge, Stephen ; Pennells, Lisa ; Thompson, Simon G ; Walker, Matthew ; Watson, Sarah ; White, Ian R ; Wood, Angela M ; Wormser, David ; Danesh, John
ispartofAmerican Journal of Epidemiology, 2014, Vol. 179(5), pp.621-632
identifier
subjectC Index ; Coronary Heart Disease ; D Measure ; Individual Participant Data ; Inverse Variance ; Meta - Analysis ; Risk Prediction ; Weighting
descriptionIndividual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiologic studies enable detailed investigation into the predictive ability of risk models. Here we address the challenges in appropriately combining such information across studies. Methods are exemplified by analyses of log C-reactive protein and conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, a collation of individual data from multiple prospective studies with an average follow-up duration of 9.8 years (dates varied). We derive risk prediction models using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis stratified by study and obtain estimates of risk discrimination, Harrell's concordance index, and Royston's discrimination measure within each study; we then combine the estimates across studies using a weighted meta-analysis. Various weighting approaches are compared and lead us to recommend using the number of events in each study. We also discuss the calculation of measures of reclassification for multiple studies. We further show that comparison of differences in predictive ability across subgroups should be based only on within-study information and that combining measures of risk discrimination from case-control studies and prospective studies is problematic. The concordance index and discrimination measure gave qualitatively similar results throughout. While the concordance index was very heterogeneous between studies, principally because of differing age ranges, the increments in the concordance index from adding log C-reactive protein to conventional risk factors were more homogeneous.
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0Pennells, Lisa
1Kaptoge, Stephen
2White, Ian R
3Thompson, Simon G
4Wood, Angela M
5Tipping, Robert W
6Folsom, Aaron R
7Couper, David J
8Ballantyne, Christie M
9Coresh, Josef
10Goya Wannamethee, S
11Morris, Richard W
12Kiechl, Stefan
13Willeit, Johann
14Willeit, Peter
15Schett, Georg
16Ebrahim, Shah
17Lawlor, Debbie A
18Yarnell, John W
19Gallacher, John
20Cushman, Mary
21Psaty, Bruce M
22Tracy, Russ
23Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne
24Price, Jackie F
25Lee, Amanda J
26McLachlan, Stela
27Khaw, Kay-Tee
28Wareham, Nicholas J
29Brenner, Hermann
30Schöttker, Ben
31Müller, Heiko
32Jansson, Jan-Håkan
33Wennberg, Patrik
34Salomaa, Veikko
35Harald, Kennet
36Jousilahti, Pekka
37Vartiainen, Erkki
38Woodward, Mark
39D'Agostino, Ralph B
40Bladbjerg, Else-Marie
41Jørgensen, Torben
42Kiyohara, Yutaka
43Arima, Hisatomi
44Doi, Yasufumi
45Ninomiya, Toshiharu
46Dekker, Jacqueline M
47Nijpels, Giel
48Stehouwer, Coen D. A
49Kauhanen, Jussi
50Salonen, Jukka T
51Meade, Tom W
52Cooper, Jackie A
53Shea, Steven
54Döring, Angela
55Kuller, Lewis H
56Grandits, Greg
57Gillum, Richard F
58Mussolino, Michael
59Rimm, Eric B
60Hankinson, Sue E
61Manson, JoAnn E
62Pai, Jennifer K
63Kirkland, Susan
64Shaffer, Jonathan A
65Shimbo, Daichi
66Bakker, Stephan J. L
67Gansevoort, Ron T
68Hillege, Hans L
69Amouyel, Philippe
70Arveiler, Dominique
71Evans, Alun
72Ferrières, Jean
73Sattar, Naveed
74Westendorp, Rudi G
75Buckley, Brendan M
76Cantin, Bernard
77Lamarche, Benoît
78Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth
79Wingard, Deborah L
80Bettencourt, Richele
81Gudnason, Vilmundur
82Aspelund, Thor
83Sigurdsson, Gunnar
84Thorsson, Bolli
85Kavousi, Maryam
86Witteman, Jacqueline C
87Hofman, Albert
88Franco, Oscar H
89Howard, Barbara V
90Zhang, Ying
91Best, Lyle
92Umans, Jason G
93Onat, Altan
94Sundström, Johan
95Michael Gaziano, J
96Stampfer, Meir
97Ridker, Paul M
98Marmot, Michael
99Clarke, Robert
100...
titleAssessing Risk Prediction Models Using Individual Participant Data From Multiple Studies
descriptionIndividual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiologic studies enable detailed investigation into the predictive ability of risk models. Here we address the challenges in appropriately combining such information across studies. Methods are exemplified by analyses of log C-reactive protein and conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, a collation of individual data from multiple prospective studies with an average follow-up duration of 9.8 years (dates varied). We derive risk prediction models using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis stratified by study and obtain estimates of risk discrimination, Harrell's concordance index, and Royston's discrimination measure within each study; we then combine the estimates across studies using a weighted meta-analysis. Various weighting approaches are compared and lead us to recommend using the number of events in each study. We also discuss the calculation of measures of reclassification for multiple studies. We further show that comparison of differences in predictive ability across subgroups should be based only on within-study information and that combining measures of risk discrimination from case-control studies and prospective studies is problematic. The concordance index and discrimination measure gave qualitatively similar results throughout. While the concordance index was very heterogeneous between studies, principally because of differing age ranges, the increments in the concordance index from adding log C-reactive protein to conventional risk factors were more homogeneous.
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titleAssessing Risk Prediction Models Using Individual Participant Data From Multiple Studies
authorPennells, Lisa ; Kaptoge, Stephen ; White, Ian R ; Thompson, Simon G ; Wood, Angela M ; Tipping, Robert W ; Folsom, Aaron R ; Couper, David J ; Ballantyne, Christie M ; Coresh, Josef ; Goya Wannamethee, S ; Morris, Richard W ; Kiechl, Stefan ; Willeit, Johann ; Willeit, Peter ; Schett, Georg ; Ebrahim, Shah ; Lawlor, Debbie A ; Yarnell, John W ; Gallacher, John ; Cushman, Mary ; Psaty, Bruce M ; Tracy, Russ ; Tybjærg - Hansen, Anne ; Price, Jackie F ; Lee, Amanda J ; Mclachlan, Stela ; Khaw, Kay - Tee ; Wareham, Nicholas J ; Brenner, Hermann ; Schöttker, Ben ; Müller, Heiko ; Jansson, Jan - Håkan ; Wennberg, Patrik ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Harald, Kennet ; Jousilahti, Pekka ; Vartiainen, Erkki ; Woodward, Mark ; D'Agostino, Ralph B ; Bladbjerg, Else - Marie ; Jørgensen, Torben ; Kiyohara, Yutaka ; Arima, Hisatomi ; Doi, Yasufumi ; Ninomiya, Toshiharu ; Dekker, Jacqueline M ; Nijpels, Giel ; Stehouwer, Coen D. A ; Kauhanen, Jussi ; Salonen, Jukka T ; Meade, Tom W ; Cooper, Jackie A ; Cushman, Mary ; Folsom, Aaron R ; Psaty, Bruce M ; Shea, Steven ; Döring, Angela ; Kuller, Lewis H ; Grandits, Greg ; Gillum, Richard F ; Mussolino, Michael ; Rimm, Eric B ; Hankinson, Sue E ; Manson, Joann E ; Pai, Jennifer K ; Kirkland, Susan ; Shaffer, Jonathan A ; Shimbo, Daichi ; Bakker, Stephan J. L ; Gansevoort, Ron T ; Hillege, Hans L ; Amouyel, Philippe ; Arveiler, Dominique ; Evans, Alun ; Ferrières, Jean ; Sattar, Naveed ; Westendorp, Rudi G ; Buckley, Brendan M ; Cantin, Bernard ; Lamarche, Benoît ; Barrett - Connor, Elizabeth ; Wingard, Deborah L ; Bettencourt, Richele ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Aspelund, Thor ; Sigurdsson, Gunnar ; Thorsson, Bolli ; Kavousi, Maryam ; Witteman, Jacqueline C ; Hofman, Albert ; Franco, Oscar H ; Howard, Barbara V ; Zhang, Ying ; Best, Lyle ; Umans, Jason G ; Onat, Altan ; Sundström, Johan ; Michael Gaziano, J ; Stampfer, Meir ; Ridker, Paul M ; Michael Gaziano, J ; Ridker, Paul M ; Marmot, Michael ; Clarke, Robert ; Collins, Rory ; Fletcher, Astrid ; Brunner, Eric ; Shipley, Martin ; Kivimäki, Mika ; Ridker, Paul M ; Buring, Julie ; Cook, Nancy ; Ford, Ian ; Shepherd, James ; Cobbe, Stuart M ; Robertson, Michele ; Walker, Matthew ; Watson, Sarah ; Alexander, Myriam ; Butterworth, Adam S ; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di ; Gao, Pei ; Haycock, Philip ; Kaptoge, Stephen ; Pennells, Lisa ; Thompson, Simon G ; Walker, Matthew ; Watson, Sarah ; White, Ian R ; Wood, Angela M ; Wormser, David ; Danesh, John
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52Cooper, Jackie A
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55Kuller, Lewis H
56Grandits, Greg
57Gillum, Richard F
58Mussolino, Michael
59Rimm, Eric B
60Hankinson, Sue E
61Manson, Joann E
62Pai, Jennifer K
63Kirkland, Susan
64Shaffer, Jonathan A
65Shimbo, Daichi
66Bakker, Stephan J. L
67Gansevoort, Ron T
68Hillege, Hans L
69Amouyel, Philippe
70Arveiler, Dominique
71Evans, Alun
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75Buckley, Brendan M
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83Sigurdsson, Gunnar
84Thorsson, Bolli
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86Witteman, Jacqueline C
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88Franco, Oscar H
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93Onat, Altan
94Sundström, Johan
95Michael Gaziano, J
96Stampfer, Meir
97Ridker, Paul M
98Marmot, Michael
99Clarke, Robert
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14Peter
15Georg
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atitleAssessing Risk Prediction Models Using Individual Participant Data From Multiple Studies
jtitleAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
risdate201403
volume179
issue5
spage621
epage632
pages621-632
issn0002-9262
eissn1476-6256
formatjournal
genrearticle
ristypeJOUR
abstractIndividual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiologic studies enable detailed investigation into the predictive ability of risk models. Here we address the challenges in appropriately combining such information across studies. Methods are exemplified by analyses of log C-reactive protein and conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, a collation of individual data from multiple prospective studies with an average follow-up duration of 9.8 years (dates varied). We derive risk prediction models using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis stratified by study and obtain estimates of risk discrimination, Harrell's concordance index, and Royston's discrimination measure within each study; we then combine the estimates across studies using a weighted meta-analysis. Various weighting approaches are compared and lead us to recommend using the number of events in each study. We also discuss the calculation of measures of reclassification for multiple studies. We further show that comparison of differences in predictive ability across subgroups should be based only on within-study information and that combining measures of risk discrimination from case-control studies and prospective studies is problematic. The concordance index and discrimination measure gave qualitatively similar results throughout. While the concordance index was very heterogeneous between studies, principally because of differing age ranges, the increments in the concordance index from adding log C-reactive protein to conventional risk factors were more homogeneous.
pubOxford University Press
doi10.1093/aje/kwt298
oafree_for_read
date2014-03-01