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Performance and immune responses to dietary β-glucan in broiler chicks

During the first week posthatch, the avian immune system is immature and inefficient at protecting chicks from invading pathogens. Among immunomodulators, β-glucans are known as biological response modifiers due to their ability to activate the immune system. Current research suggests that β-glucans... Full description

Journal Title: Poultry Science 2010, Vol. 89(9), pp.1924-1933
Main Author: Cox, C. M
Other Authors: Stuard, L. H , Kim, S , Mcelroy, A. P , Bedford, M. R , Dalloul, R. A
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
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ID: ISSN: 0032-5791 ; E-ISSN: 1525-3171 ; DOI: 10.3382/ps.2010-00865
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recordid: oxford10.3382/ps.2010-00865
title: Performance and immune responses to dietary β-glucan in broiler chicks
format: Article
creator:
  • Cox, C. M
  • Stuard, L. H
  • Kim, S
  • Mcelroy, A. P
  • Bedford, M. R
  • Dalloul, R. A
subjects:
  • Β - Glucan
  • Broiler
  • Cytokine
  • Immunity
ispartof: Poultry Science, 2010, Vol. 89(9), pp.1924-1933
description: During the first week posthatch, the avian immune system is immature and inefficient at protecting chicks from invading pathogens. Among immunomodulators, β-glucans are known as biological response modifiers due to their ability to activate the immune system. Current research suggests that β-glucans may enhance avian immunity; however, very little is known about their influence on regulation of immune function. A study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary β-glucan on growth performance, immune organ weights, peripheral blood cell profiles, and immune-related gene expression in the intestine. One-day-old chicks were fed a diet containing 0, 0.02, or 0.1% yeast β-glucan (n = 30/treatment). On d 7 and 14 posthatch, body and relative immune organ weights were measured and small intestinal sections were collected to evaluate gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR. Peripheral blood samples were also collected to determine heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Supplementation of β-glucan did not significantly affect BW gains, and no significant differences were observed among groups for relative immune organ weights or heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Compared with controls, expression of interleukin (IL)-8 was downregulated in the β-glucan-treated groups on d 7 and 14. On d 14, β-glucan inclusion resulted in increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Expression of IL-18 was upregulated on d 7 but reduced on d 14 due to β-glucan supplementation. On d 7, interferon-γ and IL-4 expression decreased in the β-glucan-treated groups. However, on d 14, IL-4 expression was upregulated in the supplemented groups. Intestinal expression of IL-13 was also downregulated in the β-glucan-treated birds on d 7. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of β-glucans altered the cytokine-chemokine balance; however, it did not elicit a robust immune response in the absence of a challenge, resulting in no deleterious effects on performance.
language:
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0032-5791 ; E-ISSN: 1525-3171 ; DOI: 10.3382/ps.2010-00865
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 0032-5791
  • 00325791
  • 1525-3171
  • 15253171
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titlePerformance and immune responses to dietary β-glucan in broiler chicks
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descriptionDuring the first week posthatch, the avian immune system is immature and inefficient at protecting chicks from invading pathogens. Among immunomodulators, β-glucans are known as biological response modifiers due to their ability to activate the immune system. Current research suggests that β-glucans may enhance avian immunity; however, very little is known about their influence on regulation of immune function. A study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary β-glucan on growth performance, immune organ weights, peripheral blood cell profiles, and immune-related gene expression in the intestine. One-day-old chicks were fed a diet containing 0, 0.02, or 0.1% yeast β-glucan (n = 30/treatment). On d 7 and 14 posthatch, body and relative immune organ weights were measured and small intestinal sections were collected to evaluate gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR. Peripheral blood samples were also collected to determine heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Supplementation of β-glucan did not significantly affect BW gains, and no significant differences were observed among groups for relative immune organ weights or heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Compared with controls, expression of interleukin (IL)-8 was downregulated in the β-glucan-treated groups on d 7 and 14. On d 14, β-glucan inclusion resulted in increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Expression of IL-18 was upregulated on d 7 but reduced on d 14 due to β-glucan supplementation. On d 7, interferon-γ and IL-4 expression decreased in the β-glucan-treated groups. However, on d 14, IL-4 expression was upregulated in the supplemented groups. Intestinal expression of IL-13 was also downregulated in the β-glucan-treated birds on d 7. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of β-glucans altered the cytokine-chemokine balance; however, it did not elicit a robust immune response in the absence of a challenge, resulting in no deleterious effects on performance.
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abstractDuring the first week posthatch, the avian immune system is immature and inefficient at protecting chicks from invading pathogens. Among immunomodulators, β-glucans are known as biological response modifiers due to their ability to activate the immune system. Current research suggests that β-glucans may enhance avian immunity; however, very little is known about their influence on regulation of immune function. A study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary β-glucan on growth performance, immune organ weights, peripheral blood cell profiles, and immune-related gene expression in the intestine. One-day-old chicks were fed a diet containing 0, 0.02, or 0.1% yeast β-glucan (n = 30/treatment). On d 7 and 14 posthatch, body and relative immune organ weights were measured and small intestinal sections were collected to evaluate gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR. Peripheral blood samples were also collected to determine heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Supplementation of β-glucan did not significantly affect BW gains, and no significant differences were observed among groups for relative immune organ weights or heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Compared with controls, expression of interleukin (IL)-8 was downregulated in the β-glucan-treated groups on d 7 and 14. On d 14, β-glucan inclusion resulted in increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Expression of IL-18 was upregulated on d 7 but reduced on d 14 due to β-glucan supplementation. On d 7, interferon-γ and IL-4 expression decreased in the β-glucan-treated groups. However, on d 14, IL-4 expression was upregulated in the supplemented groups. Intestinal expression of IL-13 was also downregulated in the β-glucan-treated birds on d 7. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of β-glucans altered the cytokine-chemokine balance; however, it did not elicit a robust immune response in the absence of a challenge, resulting in no deleterious effects on performance.
pubOxford University Press
doi10.3382/ps.2010-00865
date2010-09