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Toxicity of nano-zero valent iron to freshwater and marine organisms.

We tested whether three commercial forms (uncoated, organic coating, and iron oxide coating) of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) are toxic to freshwater and marine organisms, specifically three species of marine phytoplankton, one species of freshwater phytoplankton, and a freshwater zooplankton species... Full description

Journal Title: PloS one 2012, Vol.7(8), p.e43983
Main Author: Keller, Arturo A
Other Authors: Garner, Kendra , Miller, Robert J , Lenihan, Hunter S
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: E-ISSN: 1932-6203 ; DOI: 1932-6203 ; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043983
Link: http://search.proquest.com/docview/1038592805/?pq-origsite=primo
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recordid: proquest1038592805
title: Toxicity of nano-zero valent iron to freshwater and marine organisms.
format: Article
creator:
  • Keller, Arturo A
  • Garner, Kendra
  • Miller, Robert J
  • Lenihan, Hunter S
subjects:
  • Animals–Drug Effects
  • Aquatic Organisms–Drug Effects
  • Daphnia–Chemistry
  • Ferric Compounds–Chemistry
  • Fresh Water–Toxicity
  • Iron–Chemistry
  • Nanoparticles–Toxicity
  • Oxidation-Reduction–Drug Effects
  • Particle Size–Chemistry
  • Phytoplankton–Drug Effects
  • Polymers–Drug Effects
  • Toxicity Tests–Drug Effects
  • Zooplankton–Drug Effects
  • Ferric Compounds
  • Polymers
  • Ferric Oxide
  • Iron
ispartof: PloS one, 2012, Vol.7(8), p.e43983
description: We tested whether three commercial forms (uncoated, organic coating, and iron oxide coating) of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) are toxic to freshwater and marine organisms, specifically three species of marine phytoplankton, one species of freshwater phytoplankton, and a freshwater zooplankton species (Daphnia magna), because these organisms may be exposed downstream of where nZVI is applied to remediate polluted soil. The aggregation and reactivity of the three types of nZVI varied considerably, which was reflected in their toxicity. Since levels of Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+ increase as the nZVI react, we also evaluated their toxicity independently. All four phytoplankton species displayed decreasing population growth rates, and Daphnia magna showed increasing mortality, in response to increasing levels of nZVI, and to a lesser degree with increasing Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+ . All forms of nZVI aggregated in soil and water, especially in the presence of a high concentration of calcium ions in groundwater, thus reducing their transports through the environment. However, uncoated nZVI aggregated extremely rapidly, thus vastly reducing the probability of environmental transport and potential for toxicity. This information can be used to design a risk management strategy to arrest the transport of injected nZVI beyond the intended remediation area, by injecting inert calcium salts as a barrier to transport.
language: eng
source:
identifier: E-ISSN: 1932-6203 ; DOI: 1932-6203 ; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043983
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 19326203
  • 1932-6203
url: Link


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titleToxicity of nano-zero valent iron to freshwater and marine organisms.
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descriptionWe tested whether three commercial forms (uncoated, organic coating, and iron oxide coating) of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) are toxic to freshwater and marine organisms, specifically three species of marine phytoplankton, one species of freshwater phytoplankton, and a freshwater zooplankton species (Daphnia magna), because these organisms may be exposed downstream of where nZVI is applied to remediate polluted soil. The aggregation and reactivity of the three types of nZVI varied considerably, which was reflected in their toxicity. Since levels of Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+ increase as the nZVI react, we also evaluated their toxicity independently. All four phytoplankton species displayed decreasing population growth rates, and Daphnia magna showed increasing mortality, in response to increasing levels of nZVI, and to a lesser degree with increasing Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+ . All forms of nZVI aggregated in soil and water, especially in the presence of a high concentration of calcium ions in groundwater, thus reducing their transports through the environment. However, uncoated nZVI aggregated extremely rapidly, thus vastly reducing the probability of environmental transport and potential for toxicity. This information can be used to design a risk management strategy to arrest the transport of injected nZVI beyond the intended remediation area, by injecting inert calcium salts as a barrier to transport.
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