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The association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ~25,000 subjects.

An association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major depressive d... Full description

Journal Title: Molecular psychiatry June 2015, Vol.20(6), pp.735-743
Main Author: Peyrot, W J
Other Authors: Lee, S H , Milaneschi, Y , Abdellaoui, A , Byrne, E M , Esko, T , de Geus, E J C , Hemani, G , Hottenga, J J , Kloiber, S , Levinson, D F , Lucae, S , Martin, N G , Medland, S E , Metspalu, A , Milani, L , Noethen, M M , Potash, J B , Rietschel, M , Rietveld
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: E-ISSN: 1476-5578 ; DOI: 10.1038/mp.2015.50
Link: http://search.proquest.com/docview/1682890152/?pq-origsite=primo
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title: The association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ~25,000 subjects.
format: Article
creator:
  • Peyrot, W J
  • Lee, S H
  • Milaneschi, Y
  • Abdellaoui, A
  • Byrne, E M
  • Esko, T
  • de Geus, E J C
  • Hemani, G
  • Hottenga, J J
  • Kloiber, S
  • Levinson, D F
  • Lucae, S
  • Martin, N G
  • Medland, S E
  • Metspalu, A
  • Milani, L
  • Noethen, M M
  • Potash, J B
  • Rietschel, M
  • Rietveld
subjects:
  • Adult–Epidemiology
  • Aged–Genetics
  • Cohort Studies–Psychology
  • Depressive Disorder, Major–Epidemiology
  • Educational Status–Epidemiology
  • Estonia–Genetics
  • Female–Genetics
  • Gene-Environment Interaction–Genetics
  • Genetic Association Studies–Genetics
  • Genotype–Genetics
  • Humans–Genetics
  • Likelihood Functions–Genetics
  • Male–Genetics
  • Middle Aged–Genetics
  • Netherlands–Genetics
  • Odds Ratio–Genetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide–Genetics
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales–Genetics
  • Regression Analysis–Genetics
ispartof: Molecular psychiatry, June 2015, Vol.20(6), pp.735-743
description: An association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and 14 949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15 138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0.78 (0.75-0.82) per standard deviation increase in EA. With data of 884105 autosomal common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three methods were applied to test for pleiotropy between MDD and EA: (i) genetic profile risk scores (GPRS) derived from training data for EA (independent meta-analysis on ~120 000 subjects) and MDD (using a 10-fold leave-one-out procedure in the current sample), (ii) bivariate genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) and (iii) SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA). With these methods, we found (i) that the EA-GPRS did not predict MDD status, and MDD-GPRS did not predict EA, (ii) a weak negative genetic correlation with bivariate GREML analyses, but this correlation was not consistently significant, (iii) no evidence for concordance of MDD and EA SNP effects with SECA analysis. To conclude, our study confirms an association of lower EA and MDD risk, but this association was not because of measurable pleiotropic genetic effects, which suggests that environmental factors could be involved, for example, socioeconomic status. Molecular Psychiatry (2015) 20, 735-743; doi: 10.1038/mp.2015.50; published online 28 April 2015
language: eng
source:
identifier: E-ISSN: 1476-5578 ; DOI: 10.1038/mp.2015.50
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 14765578
  • 1476-5578
url: Link


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titleThe association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ~25,000 subjects.
creatorPeyrot, W J ; Lee, S H ; Milaneschi, Y ; Abdellaoui, A ; Byrne, E M ; Esko, T ; de Geus, E J C ; Hemani, G ; Hottenga, J J ; Kloiber, S ; Levinson, D F ; Lucae, S ; Martin, N G ; Medland, S E ; Metspalu, A ; Milani, L ; Noethen, M M ; Potash, J B ; Rietschel, M ; Rietveld
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ispartofMolecular psychiatry, June 2015, Vol.20(6), pp.735-743
identifierE-ISSN: 1476-5578 ; DOI: 10.1038/mp.2015.50
subjectAdult–Epidemiology ; Aged–Genetics ; Cohort Studies–Psychology ; Depressive Disorder, Major–Epidemiology ; Educational Status–Epidemiology ; Estonia–Genetics ; Female–Genetics ; Gene-Environment Interaction–Genetics ; Genetic Association Studies–Genetics ; Genotype–Genetics ; Humans–Genetics ; Likelihood Functions–Genetics ; Male–Genetics ; Middle Aged–Genetics ; Netherlands–Genetics ; Odds Ratio–Genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide–Genetics ; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales–Genetics ; Regression Analysis–Genetics
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descriptionAn association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and 14 949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15 138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0.78 (0.75-0.82) per standard deviation increase in EA. With data of 884105 autosomal common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three methods were applied to test for pleiotropy between MDD and EA: (i) genetic profile risk scores (GPRS) derived from training data for EA (independent meta-analysis on ~120 000 subjects) and MDD (using a 10-fold leave-one-out procedure in the current sample), (ii) bivariate genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) and (iii) SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA). With these methods, we found (i) that the EA-GPRS did not predict MDD status, and MDD-GPRS did not predict EA, (ii) a weak negative genetic correlation with bivariate GREML analyses, but this correlation was not consistently significant, (iii) no evidence for concordance of MDD and EA SNP effects with SECA analysis. To conclude, our study confirms an association of lower EA and MDD risk, but this association was not because of measurable pleiotropic genetic effects, which suggests that environmental factors could be involved, for example, socioeconomic status. Molecular Psychiatry (2015) 20, 735-743; doi: 10.1038/mp.2015.50; published online 28 April 2015
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titleThe association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ~25,000 subjects.
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24Barnes, M R
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26Binder, E B
27Breuer, R
28Castro, V M
29Churchill, S E
30Coryell, W H
31Craddock, N
32Craig, I W
33Czamara, D
34Degenhardt, F
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36Fava, M
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38Gainer, V S
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titleThe association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ~25,000 subjects.
authorPeyrot, W J ; Lee, S H ; Milaneschi, Y ; Abdellaoui, A ; Byrne, E M ; Esko, T ; de Geus, E J C ; Hemani, G ; Hottenga, J J ; Kloiber, S ; Levinson, D F ; Lucae, S ; Martin, N G ; Medland, S E ; Metspalu, A ; Milani, L ; Noethen, M M ; Potash, J B ; Rietschel, M ; Rietveld
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5Estonia–Genetics
6Female–Genetics
7Gene-Environment Interaction–Genetics
8Genetic Association Studies–Genetics
9Genotype–Genetics
10Humans–Genetics
11Likelihood Functions–Genetics
12Male–Genetics
13Middle Aged–Genetics
14Netherlands–Genetics
15Odds Ratio–Genetics
16Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide–Genetics
17Psychiatric Status Rating Scales–Genetics
18Regression Analysis–Genetics
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