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A Comparison of Different Methods for Evaluating Diet, Physical Activity, and Long-Term Weight Gain in 3 Prospective Cohort Studies 1-3

The insidious pace of long-term weight gain (~1 lb/y or 0.45 kg/y) makes it difficult to study in trials; long-term prospective cohorts provide crucial evidence on its key contributors. Most previous studies have evaluated howprevalent lifestyle habits relate to future weight gain rather than to lif... Full description

Journal Title: The Journal of Nutrition Nov 2015, Vol.145(11), pp.2527-2534,1-27
Main Author: Smith, Jessica
Other Authors: Hou, Tao , Hu, Frank , Rimm, Eric , Spiegelman, Donna , Willett, Walter , Mozaffarian, Dariush
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 00223166 ; E-ISSN: 15416100 ; DOI: 10.3945/jn.115.214171
Link: http://search.proquest.com/docview/1791037046/?pq-origsite=primo
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title: A Comparison of Different Methods for Evaluating Diet, Physical Activity, and Long-Term Weight Gain in 3 Prospective Cohort Studies 1-3
format: Article
creator:
  • Smith, Jessica
  • Hou, Tao
  • Hu, Frank
  • Rimm, Eric
  • Spiegelman, Donna
  • Willett, Walter
  • Mozaffarian, Dariush
subjects:
  • Chronic Illnesses
  • Health Risk Assessment
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Public Health
  • Grain
  • Medical Personnel
  • Studies
  • Diet
  • Lifestyles
  • Weight Control
  • Milk
  • Health Care
  • Nurses
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Diabetes
  • Nutrition Research
  • Family Medical History
  • Kidney Diseases
ispartof: The Journal of Nutrition, Nov 2015, Vol.145(11), pp.2527-2534,1-27
description: The insidious pace of long-term weight gain (~1 lb/y or 0.45 kg/y) makes it difficult to study in trials; long-term prospective cohorts provide crucial evidence on its key contributors. Most previous studies have evaluated howprevalent lifestyle habits relate to future weight gain rather than to lifestyle changes, which may be more temporally and physiologically relevant. Our objective was to evaluate and compare different methodological approaches for investigating diet, physical activity (PA), and long-term weight gain. In 3 prospective cohorts (total n = 117,992), we assessed how lifestyle relates to long-term weight change (up to 24 y of follow-up) in 4-y periods by comparing 3 analytic approaches: 1) prevalent diet and PA and 4-y weight change (prevalent analysis); 2) 4-y changes in diet and PA with a 4-y weight change (change analysis); and 3) 4-y change in diet and PA with weight change in the subsequent 4 y (lagged-change analysis). We compared these approaches and evaluated the consistency across cohorts, magnitudes of associations, and biological plausibility of findings. Across the 3 methods, consistent, robust, and biologically plausible associations were seen only for the change analysis. Results for prevalent or lagged-change analyses were less consistent across cohorts, smaller in magnitude, and biologically implausible. For example, for each serving of a sugar-sweetened beverage, the observed weight gain was 0.01 lb (95% CI: 20.08, 0.10) [0.005 kg (95% CI: 20.04, 0.05)] based on prevalent analysis; 0.99 lb (95% CI: 0.83, 1.16) [0.45 kg (95% CI: 0.38, 0.53)] based on change analysis; and 0.05 lb (95% CI: 20.10, 0.21) [0.02 kg (95% CI: 20.05, 0.10)] based on lagged-change analysis. Findings were similar for other foods and PA. Robust, consistent, and biologically plausible relations between lifestyle and long-term weight gain are seen when evaluating lifestyle changes and weight changes in discrete periods rather than in prevalent lifestyle or lagged changes. These findings inform the optimal methods for evaluating lifestyle and long-term weight gain and the potential for bias when other methods are used.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 00223166 ; E-ISSN: 15416100 ; DOI: 10.3945/jn.115.214171
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 00223166
  • 0022-3166
  • 15416100
  • 1541-6100
url: Link


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titleA Comparison of Different Methods for Evaluating Diet, Physical Activity, and Long-Term Weight Gain in 3 Prospective Cohort Studies 1-3
creatorSmith, Jessica ; Hou, Tao ; Hu, Frank ; Rimm, Eric ; Spiegelman, Donna ; Willett, Walter ; Mozaffarian, Dariush
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subjectChronic Illnesses ; Health Risk Assessment ; Cardiovascular Disease ; Public Health ; Grain ; Medical Personnel ; Studies ; Diet ; Lifestyles ; Weight Control ; Milk ; Health Care ; Nurses ; Inflammatory Bowel Disease ; Diabetes ; Nutrition Research ; Family Medical History ; Kidney Diseases
descriptionThe insidious pace of long-term weight gain (~1 lb/y or 0.45 kg/y) makes it difficult to study in trials; long-term prospective cohorts provide crucial evidence on its key contributors. Most previous studies have evaluated howprevalent lifestyle habits relate to future weight gain rather than to lifestyle changes, which may be more temporally and physiologically relevant. Our objective was to evaluate and compare different methodological approaches for investigating diet, physical activity (PA), and long-term weight gain. In 3 prospective cohorts (total n = 117,992), we assessed how lifestyle relates to long-term weight change (up to 24 y of follow-up) in 4-y periods by comparing 3 analytic approaches: 1) prevalent diet and PA and 4-y weight change (prevalent analysis); 2) 4-y changes in diet and PA with a 4-y weight change (change analysis); and 3) 4-y change in diet and PA with weight change in the subsequent 4 y (lagged-change analysis). We compared these approaches and evaluated the consistency across cohorts, magnitudes of associations, and biological plausibility of findings. Across the 3 methods, consistent, robust, and biologically plausible associations were seen only for the change analysis. Results for prevalent or lagged-change analyses were less consistent across cohorts, smaller in magnitude, and biologically implausible. For example, for each serving of a sugar-sweetened beverage, the observed weight gain was 0.01 lb (95% CI: 20.08, 0.10) [0.005 kg (95% CI: 20.04, 0.05)] based on prevalent analysis; 0.99 lb (95% CI: 0.83, 1.16) [0.45 kg (95% CI: 0.38, 0.53)] based on change analysis; and 0.05 lb (95% CI: 20.10, 0.21) [0.02 kg (95% CI: 20.05, 0.10)] based on lagged-change analysis. Findings were similar for other foods and PA. Robust, consistent, and biologically plausible relations between lifestyle and long-term weight gain are seen when evaluating lifestyle changes and weight changes in discrete periods rather than in prevalent lifestyle or lagged changes. These findings inform the optimal methods for evaluating lifestyle and long-term weight gain and the potential for bias when other methods are used.
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titleA Comparison of Different Methods for Evaluating Diet, Physical Activity, and Long-Term Weight Gain in 3 Prospective Cohort Studies 1-3
descriptionThe insidious pace of long-term weight gain (~1 lb/y or 0.45 kg/y) makes it difficult to study in trials; long-term prospective cohorts provide crucial evidence on its key contributors. Most previous studies have evaluated howprevalent lifestyle habits relate to future weight gain rather than to lifestyle changes, which may be more temporally and physiologically relevant. Our objective was to evaluate and compare different methodological approaches for investigating diet, physical activity (PA), and long-term weight gain. In 3 prospective cohorts (total n = 117,992), we assessed how lifestyle relates to long-term weight change (up to 24 y of follow-up) in 4-y periods by comparing 3 analytic approaches: 1) prevalent diet and PA and 4-y weight change (prevalent analysis); 2) 4-y changes in diet and PA with a 4-y weight change (change analysis); and 3) 4-y change in diet and PA with weight change in the subsequent 4 y (lagged-change analysis). We compared these approaches and evaluated the consistency across cohorts, magnitudes of associations, and biological plausibility of findings. Across the 3 methods, consistent, robust, and biologically plausible associations were seen only for the change analysis. Results for prevalent or lagged-change analyses were less consistent across cohorts, smaller in magnitude, and biologically implausible. For example, for each serving of a sugar-sweetened beverage, the observed weight gain was 0.01 lb (95% CI: 20.08, 0.10) [0.005 kg (95% CI: 20.04, 0.05)] based on prevalent analysis; 0.99 lb (95% CI: 0.83, 1.16) [0.45 kg (95% CI: 0.38, 0.53)] based on change analysis; and 0.05 lb (95% CI: 20.10, 0.21) [0.02 kg (95% CI: 20.05, 0.10)] based on lagged-change analysis. Findings were similar for other foods and PA. Robust, consistent, and biologically plausible relations between lifestyle and long-term weight gain are seen when evaluating lifestyle changes and weight changes in discrete periods rather than in prevalent lifestyle or lagged changes. These findings inform the optimal methods for evaluating lifestyle and long-term weight gain and the potential for bias when other methods are used.
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abstractThe insidious pace of long-term weight gain (~1 lb/y or 0.45 kg/y) makes it difficult to study in trials; long-term prospective cohorts provide crucial evidence on its key contributors. Most previous studies have evaluated howprevalent lifestyle habits relate to future weight gain rather than to lifestyle changes, which may be more temporally and physiologically relevant. Our objective was to evaluate and compare different methodological approaches for investigating diet, physical activity (PA), and long-term weight gain. In 3 prospective cohorts (total n = 117,992), we assessed how lifestyle relates to long-term weight change (up to 24 y of follow-up) in 4-y periods by comparing 3 analytic approaches: 1) prevalent diet and PA and 4-y weight change (prevalent analysis); 2) 4-y changes in diet and PA with a 4-y weight change (change analysis); and 3) 4-y change in diet and PA with weight change in the subsequent 4 y (lagged-change analysis). We compared these approaches and evaluated the consistency across cohorts, magnitudes of associations, and biological plausibility of findings. Across the 3 methods, consistent, robust, and biologically plausible associations were seen only for the change analysis. Results for prevalent or lagged-change analyses were less consistent across cohorts, smaller in magnitude, and biologically implausible. For example, for each serving of a sugar-sweetened beverage, the observed weight gain was 0.01 lb (95% CI: 20.08, 0.10) [0.005 kg (95% CI: 20.04, 0.05)] based on prevalent analysis; 0.99 lb (95% CI: 0.83, 1.16) [0.45 kg (95% CI: 0.38, 0.53)] based on change analysis; and 0.05 lb (95% CI: 20.10, 0.21) [0.02 kg (95% CI: 20.05, 0.10)] based on lagged-change analysis. Findings were similar for other foods and PA. Robust, consistent, and biologically plausible relations between lifestyle and long-term weight gain are seen when evaluating lifestyle changes and weight changes in discrete periods rather than in prevalent lifestyle or lagged changes. These findings inform the optimal methods for evaluating lifestyle and long-term weight gain and the potential for bias when other methods are used.
copBethesda
pubAmerican Institute of Nutrition
doi10.3945/jn.115.214171
urlhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/1791037046/
date2015-11-01