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Influence of pork and pork by-products on macronutrient and energy digestibility and palatability in large exotic felids.

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-... Full description

Journal Title: Journal of animal science September 2016, Vol.94(9), pp.3738-3745
Main Author: Iske, C J
Other Authors: Morris, C L , Kappen, K L
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: E-ISSN: 1525-3163 ; DOI: 1525-3163 ; DOI: 10.2527/jas.2016-0414
Link: http://search.proquest.com/docview/1845251521/?pq-origsite=primo
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title: Influence of pork and pork by-products on macronutrient and energy digestibility and palatability in large exotic felids.
format: Article
creator:
  • Iske, C J
  • Morris, C L
  • Kappen, K L
subjects:
  • Animal Feed–Analysis
  • Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena–Veterinary
  • Animals–Chemistry
  • Cattle–Physiology
  • Diet–Analysis
  • Digestion–Analysis
  • Energy Metabolism–Analysis
  • Feces–Analysis
  • Felidae–Analysis
  • Female–Analysis
  • Horses–Analysis
  • Male–Analysis
  • Meat–Analysis
  • Swine–Analysis
ispartof: Journal of animal science, September 2016, Vol.94(9), pp.3738-3745
description: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos. Ten exotic felids were used including cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus; n = 3), jaguars (Panthera onca; n = 3), leopards (Panthera pardus; n = 2), puma (Puma concolor; n = 1), and Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris; n = 1). Dietary treatments consisted of 4 raw meat diets: 1 horse-based (Horse), 2 beef-based (B1, B2), and 1 pork-based diet (Pork). Fecal scores also were evaluated (1 = hard to 5 = watery/liquid). This randomized crossover design study consisted of 4 periods, each 10 d for treatment adaptation followed by 4 d of sample collection. Dry matter and crude protein apparent digestibility values were greater (P < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (88.0 and 95.7%) compared with felids fed Horse (83.6 and 92.7%) and B2 (85.6 and 93.1%). Apparent organic matter digestibility was greater (P < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (90.8%) than felids fed Horse (88.5%). Apparent fat digestibility values were high across all treatments but were greater (P < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (98.5%) compared with felids fed B1 (95.5%) or B2 (96.5%). Gross energy digestibility values were greater in felids fed Pork (92.4%) compared with B1 (90.2%). Average fecal scores were 2.30, 2.94, 3.42, and 3.54 for Horse, Pork, B1 and B2, respectively; and were different (P < 0.05) between treatments with exception of B1 and B2 that did not differ. Felids approached the pork diet first in 65.6% of observations and tasted the pork diet first in 71.9% of observations, compared with a beef-based raw diet. Based on results, the evaluated pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and palatability compared with standard zoo carnivore formulations. In conclusion, pork-based diets could be included among dietary options for large zoo felids.
language: eng
source:
identifier: E-ISSN: 1525-3163 ; DOI: 1525-3163 ; DOI: 10.2527/jas.2016-0414
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 15253163
  • 1525-3163
url: Link


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titleInfluence of pork and pork by-products on macronutrient and energy digestibility and palatability in large exotic felids.
creatorIske, C J ; Morris, C L ; Kappen, K L
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subjectAnimal Feed–Analysis ; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena–Veterinary ; Animals–Chemistry ; Cattle–Physiology ; Diet–Analysis ; Digestion–Analysis ; Energy Metabolism–Analysis ; Feces–Analysis ; Felidae–Analysis ; Female–Analysis ; Horses–Analysis ; Male–Analysis ; Meat–Analysis ; Swine–Analysis
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descriptionTwo experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos. Ten exotic felids were used including cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus; n = 3), jaguars (Panthera onca; n = 3), leopards (Panthera pardus; n = 2), puma (Puma concolor; n = 1), and Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris; n = 1). Dietary treatments consisted of 4 raw meat diets: 1 horse-based (Horse), 2 beef-based (B1, B2), and 1 pork-based diet (Pork). Fecal scores also were evaluated (1 = hard to 5 = watery/liquid). This randomized crossover design study consisted of 4 periods, each 10 d for treatment adaptation followed by 4 d of sample collection. Dry matter and crude protein apparent digestibility values were greater (P < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (88.0 and 95.7%) compared with felids fed Horse (83.6 and 92.7%) and B2 (85.6 and 93.1%). Apparent organic matter digestibility was greater (P < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (90.8%) than felids fed Horse (88.5%). Apparent fat digestibility values were high across all treatments but were greater (P < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (98.5%) compared with felids fed B1 (95.5%) or B2 (96.5%). Gross energy digestibility values were greater in felids fed Pork (92.4%) compared with B1 (90.2%). Average fecal scores were 2.30, 2.94, 3.42, and 3.54 for Horse, Pork, B1 and B2, respectively; and were different (P < 0.05) between treatments with exception of B1 and B2 that did not differ. Felids approached the pork diet first in 65.6% of observations and tasted the pork diet first in 71.9% of observations, compared with a beef-based raw diet. Based on results, the evaluated pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and palatability compared with standard zoo carnivore formulations. In conclusion, pork-based diets could be included among dietary options for large zoo felids.
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