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Chronic Plasmodium brasilianum infections in wild Peruvian tamarins

There is an increased interest in potential zoonotic malarias. To date, Plasmodium malariae that infects humans remains indistinguishable from Plasmodium brasilianum, which is widespread among New World primates. Distributed throughout tropical Central and South America, the Callitrichidae are small... Full description

Journal Title: PLoS One Sep 2017, Vol.12(9), p.e0184504
Main Author: Erkenswick, Gideon
Other Authors: Watsa, Mrinalini , Pacheco, M , Escalante, Ananias , Parker, Patricia
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184504
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recordid: proquest1938529638
title: Chronic Plasmodium brasilianum infections in wild Peruvian tamarins
format: Article
creator:
  • Erkenswick, Gideon
  • Watsa, Mrinalini
  • Pacheco, M
  • Escalante, Ananias
  • Parker, Patricia
subjects:
  • Plasmodium Falciparum
  • Missouri
  • Pennsylvania
  • Plasmodium Brasilianum
  • Plasmodium Malariae
  • United States–Us
  • Plasmodium
  • Plasmodium Knowlesi
  • Infections
  • Phylogenetics
  • Cytochrome B
  • Sympatric Populations
  • Biology
  • Blood & Organ Donations
  • Genomics
  • Erythrocytes
  • Primates
  • Cytochrome
  • Malaria
  • Primates
  • Probabilistic Methods
  • Parasites
  • Populations
  • Studies
  • Epidemiology
  • Wildlife
  • Infections
  • Microscopy
  • Microscopy
  • Screening
  • Zoonoses
  • Sampling Designs
  • Temple University
  • Ecology Center
  • Plasmodium
  • Primates
  • Parasitic Diseases
  • Tamarins
  • Malarial Parasites
  • Malaria
  • Zoonoses
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
ispartof: PLoS One, Sep 2017, Vol.12(9), p.e0184504
description: There is an increased interest in potential zoonotic malarias. To date, Plasmodium malariae that infects humans remains indistinguishable from Plasmodium brasilianum, which is widespread among New World primates. Distributed throughout tropical Central and South America, the Callitrichidae are small arboreal primates in which detection of natural Plasmodium infection has been extremely rare. Most prior screening efforts have been limited to small samples, the use of low-probability detection methods, or both. Rarely have screening efforts implemented a longitudinal sampling design. Through an annual mark-recapture program of two sympatric callitrichids, the emperor (Saguinus imperator) and saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) tamarins, whole blood samples were screened for Plasmodium by microscopy and nested PCR of the cytochrome b gene across four consecutive years (2012–2015). Following the first field season, approximately 50% of the samples collected each subsequent year were from recaptured individuals. In particular, out of 245 samples from 129 individuals, 11 samples from 6 individuals were positive for Plasmodium, and all but one of these infections was found in S. imperator. Importantly, the cytochrome b sequences were 100% identical to former isolates of P. malariae from humans and P. brasilianum from Saimiri sp. Chronic infections were detected as evidenced by repeated infections (7) from two individuals across the 4-year study period. Furthermore, 4 of the 5 infected emperor tamarins were part of a single group spanning the entire study period. Overall, the low prevalence reported here is consistent with previous findings. This study identifies two new natural hosts for P. brasilianum and provides evidence in support of chronic infections in wildlife populations. Given that callitrichids are often found in mixed-species associations with other primates and can be resilient to human-disturbed environments, they could contribute to the maintenance of P. malariae populations if future work provides entomological and epidemiological evidence indicating human zoonotic infections.
language: eng
source:
identifier: DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184504
fulltext: fulltext_linktorsrc
url: Link


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titleChronic Plasmodium brasilianum infections in wild Peruvian tamarins
creatorErkenswick, Gideon ; Watsa, Mrinalini ; Pacheco, M ; Escalante, Ananias ; Parker, Patricia
ispartofPLoS One, Sep 2017, Vol.12(9), p.e0184504
identifierDOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184504
subjectPlasmodium Falciparum ; Missouri ; Pennsylvania ; Plasmodium Brasilianum ; Plasmodium Malariae ; United States–Us ; Plasmodium ; Plasmodium Knowlesi ; Infections ; Phylogenetics ; Cytochrome B ; Sympatric Populations ; Biology ; Blood & Organ Donations ; Genomics ; Erythrocytes ; Primates ; Cytochrome ; Malaria ; Primates ; Probabilistic Methods ; Parasites ; Populations ; Studies ; Epidemiology ; Wildlife ; Infections ; Microscopy ; Microscopy ; Screening ; Zoonoses ; Sampling Designs ; Temple University ; Ecology Center ; Plasmodium ; Primates ; Parasitic Diseases ; Tamarins ; Malarial Parasites ; Malaria ; Zoonoses ; Polymerase Chain Reaction
descriptionThere is an increased interest in potential zoonotic malarias. To date, Plasmodium malariae that infects humans remains indistinguishable from Plasmodium brasilianum, which is widespread among New World primates. Distributed throughout tropical Central and South America, the Callitrichidae are small arboreal primates in which detection of natural Plasmodium infection has been extremely rare. Most prior screening efforts have been limited to small samples, the use of low-probability detection methods, or both. Rarely have screening efforts implemented a longitudinal sampling design. Through an annual mark-recapture program of two sympatric callitrichids, the emperor (Saguinus imperator) and saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) tamarins, whole blood samples were screened for Plasmodium by microscopy and nested PCR of the cytochrome b gene across four consecutive years (2012–2015). Following the first field season, approximately 50% of the samples collected each subsequent year were from recaptured individuals. In particular, out of 245 samples from 129 individuals, 11 samples from 6 individuals were positive for Plasmodium, and all but one of these infections was found in S. imperator. Importantly, the cytochrome b sequences were 100% identical to former isolates of P. malariae from humans and P. brasilianum from Saimiri sp. Chronic infections were detected as evidenced by repeated infections (7) from two individuals across the 4-year study period. Furthermore, 4 of the 5 infected emperor tamarins were part of a single group spanning the entire study period. Overall, the low prevalence reported here is consistent with previous findings. This study identifies two new natural hosts for P. brasilianum and provides evidence in support of chronic infections in wildlife populations. Given that callitrichids are often found in mixed-species associations with other primates and can be resilient to human-disturbed environments, they could contribute to the maintenance of P. malariae populations if future work provides entomological and epidemiological evidence indicating human zoonotic infections.
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descriptionThere is an increased interest in potential zoonotic malarias. To date, Plasmodium malariae that infects humans remains indistinguishable from Plasmodium brasilianum, which is widespread among New World primates. Distributed throughout tropical Central and South America, the Callitrichidae are small arboreal primates in which detection of natural Plasmodium infection has been extremely rare. Most prior screening efforts have been limited to small samples, the use of low-probability detection methods, or both. Rarely have screening efforts implemented a longitudinal sampling design. Through an annual mark-recapture program of two sympatric callitrichids, the emperor (Saguinus imperator) and saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) tamarins, whole blood samples were screened for Plasmodium by microscopy and nested PCR of the cytochrome b gene across four consecutive years (2012–2015). Following the first field season, approximately 50% of the samples collected each subsequent year were from recaptured individuals. In particular, out of 245 samples from 129 individuals, 11 samples from 6 individuals were positive for Plasmodium, and all but one of these infections was found in S. imperator. Importantly, the cytochrome b sequences were 100% identical to former isolates of P. malariae from humans and P. brasilianum from Saimiri sp. Chronic infections were detected as evidenced by repeated infections (7) from two individuals across the 4-year study period. Furthermore, 4 of the 5 infected emperor tamarins were part of a single group spanning the entire study period. Overall, the low prevalence reported here is consistent with previous findings. This study identifies two new natural hosts for P. brasilianum and provides evidence in support of chronic infections in wildlife populations. Given that callitrichids are often found in mixed-species associations with other primates and can be resilient to human-disturbed environments, they could contribute to the maintenance of P. malariae populations if future work provides entomological and epidemiological evidence indicating human zoonotic infections.
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titleChronic Plasmodium brasilianum infections in wild Peruvian tamarins
authorErkenswick, Gideon ; Watsa, Mrinalini ; Pacheco, M ; Escalante, Ananias ; Parker, Patricia
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8Infections
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10Cytochrome B
11Sympatric Populations
12Biology
13Blood & Organ Donations
14Genomics
15Erythrocytes
16Primates
17Cytochrome
18Malaria
19Probabilistic Methods
20Parasites
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23Epidemiology
24Wildlife
25Microscopy
26Screening
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abstractThere is an increased interest in potential zoonotic malarias. To date, Plasmodium malariae that infects humans remains indistinguishable from Plasmodium brasilianum, which is widespread among New World primates. Distributed throughout tropical Central and South America, the Callitrichidae are small arboreal primates in which detection of natural Plasmodium infection has been extremely rare. Most prior screening efforts have been limited to small samples, the use of low-probability detection methods, or both. Rarely have screening efforts implemented a longitudinal sampling design. Through an annual mark-recapture program of two sympatric callitrichids, the emperor (Saguinus imperator) and saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) tamarins, whole blood samples were screened for Plasmodium by microscopy and nested PCR of the cytochrome b gene across four consecutive years (2012–2015). Following the first field season, approximately 50% of the samples collected each subsequent year were from recaptured individuals. In particular, out of 245 samples from 129 individuals, 11 samples from 6 individuals were positive for Plasmodium, and all but one of these infections was found in S. imperator. Importantly, the cytochrome b sequences were 100% identical to former isolates of P. malariae from humans and P. brasilianum from Saimiri sp. Chronic infections were detected as evidenced by repeated infections (7) from two individuals across the 4-year study period. Furthermore, 4 of the 5 infected emperor tamarins were part of a single group spanning the entire study period. Overall, the low prevalence reported here is consistent with previous findings. This study identifies two new natural hosts for P. brasilianum and provides evidence in support of chronic infections in wildlife populations. Given that callitrichids are often found in mixed-species associations with other primates and can be resilient to human-disturbed environments, they could contribute to the maintenance of P. malariae populations if future work provides entomological and epidemiological evidence indicating human zoonotic infections.
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