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Imaging electron flow from collimating contacts in graphene

The ballistic motion of electrons in graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) promises exciting opportunities for electron-optics devices. A narrow electron beam is desired, with both the mean free path and coherence length exceeding the device size. One can form a collimating contact... Full description

Journal Title: arXiv.org Oct 27, 2017
Main Author: Bhandari, Sagar
Other Authors: Gil-Ho, Lee , Watanabe, Kenji , Taniguchi, Takashi , Kim, Philip , Westervelt, Robert
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
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recordid: proquest2076856134
title: Imaging electron flow from collimating contacts in graphene
format: Article
creator:
  • Bhandari, Sagar
  • Gil-Ho, Lee
  • Watanabe, Kenji
  • Taniguchi, Takashi
  • Kim, Philip
  • Westervelt, Robert
subjects:
  • Electrons
  • Position Measurement
  • Ray Tracing
  • Electron Beams
  • Collimation
  • Encapsulation
  • Graphene
  • Cyclotrons
  • Angular Position
  • Raster Scanning
  • Bends
  • Electron Density
  • Emitters (Electron)
  • Electron Trajectories
  • Images
  • Coherence Length
  • Boron Nitride
  • Contact Angle
ispartof: arXiv.org, Oct 27, 2017
description: The ballistic motion of electrons in graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) promises exciting opportunities for electron-optics devices. A narrow electron beam is desired, with both the mean free path and coherence length exceeding the device size. One can form a collimating contact in graphene by adding zigzag contacts on either side of the electron emitter that absorb stray electrons to form a collimated electron beam [23]. Here we provide images of electron flow from a collimating contact that directly show the width and shape of the electron beam, obtained using a Scanning Gate Microscope (SGM) cooled to 4.2 K. The device is a hBN-encapsulated graphene hall bar with narrow side contacts on either side of the channel that have an electron emitter at the end and absorbing zig-zag contacts at both side. To form an image of electron flow, the SGM tip is raster scanned at a constant height above the sample surface while the transmission to a receiving contact on opposite sides of the channel is measured. By displaying the change {\Delta}T vs. tip position, an image of ballistic flow is obtained. The angular width of the electron beam leaving the collimating contact is found by applying a perpendicular magnetic field B that bends electron paths into cyclotron orbits. SGM images reveal that electron flow from a collimating contact disappears quickly at B = 0.05T while the flow from a non-collimating contact persists up to B = 0.19 T. Ray tracing simulations agree well with the experimental images over a range of B and electron density n. By fitting the half-width at half-max (HWHM) of the magnitude of electron flow in the experimental SGM images, we find a narrow half angular width {\Delta}{\theta} = 9.2{\deg} for the electron flow from the collimating contact, compared with a wide flow {\Delta}{\theta} = 54{\deg} from the non-collimating contact.
language: eng
source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved
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titleImaging electron flow from collimating contacts in graphene
creatorBhandari, Sagar ; Gil-Ho, Lee ; Watanabe, Kenji ; Taniguchi, Takashi ; Kim, Philip ; Westervelt, Robert
contributorWestervelt, Robert (pacrepositoryorg)
ispartofarXiv.org, Oct 27, 2017
subjectElectrons ; Position Measurement ; Ray Tracing ; Electron Beams ; Collimation ; Encapsulation ; Graphene ; Cyclotrons ; Angular Position ; Raster Scanning ; Bends ; Electron Density ; Emitters (Electron) ; Electron Trajectories ; Images ; Coherence Length ; Boron Nitride ; Contact Angle
descriptionThe ballistic motion of electrons in graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) promises exciting opportunities for electron-optics devices. A narrow electron beam is desired, with both the mean free path and coherence length exceeding the device size. One can form a collimating contact in graphene by adding zigzag contacts on either side of the electron emitter that absorb stray electrons to form a collimated electron beam [23]. Here we provide images of electron flow from a collimating contact that directly show the width and shape of the electron beam, obtained using a Scanning Gate Microscope (SGM) cooled to 4.2 K. The device is a hBN-encapsulated graphene hall bar with narrow side contacts on either side of the channel that have an electron emitter at the end and absorbing zig-zag contacts at both side. To form an image of electron flow, the SGM tip is raster scanned at a constant height above the sample surface while the transmission to a receiving contact on opposite sides of the channel is measured. By displaying the change {\Delta}T vs. tip position, an image of ballistic flow is obtained. The angular width of the electron beam leaving the collimating contact is found by applying a perpendicular magnetic field B that bends electron paths into cyclotron orbits. SGM images reveal that electron flow from a collimating contact disappears quickly at B = 0.05T while the flow from a non-collimating contact persists up to B = 0.19 T. Ray tracing simulations agree well with the experimental images over a range of B and electron density n. By fitting the half-width at half-max (HWHM) of the magnitude of electron flow in the experimental SGM images, we find a narrow half angular width {\Delta}{\theta} = 9.2{\deg} for the electron flow from the collimating contact, compared with a wide flow {\Delta}{\theta} = 54{\deg} from the non-collimating contact.
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titleImaging electron flow from collimating contacts in graphene
descriptionThe ballistic motion of electrons in graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) promises exciting opportunities for electron-optics devices. A narrow electron beam is desired, with both the mean free path and coherence length exceeding the device size. One can form a collimating contact in graphene by adding zigzag contacts on either side of the electron emitter that absorb stray electrons to form a collimated electron beam [23]. Here we provide images of electron flow from a collimating contact that directly show the width and shape of the electron beam, obtained using a Scanning Gate Microscope (SGM) cooled to 4.2 K. The device is a hBN-encapsulated graphene hall bar with narrow side contacts on either side of the channel that have an electron emitter at the end and absorbing zig-zag contacts at both side. To form an image of electron flow, the SGM tip is raster scanned at a constant height above the sample surface while the transmission to a receiving contact on opposite sides of the channel is measured. By displaying the change {\Delta}T vs. tip position, an image of ballistic flow is obtained. The angular width of the electron beam leaving the collimating contact is found by applying a perpendicular magnetic field B that bends electron paths into cyclotron orbits. SGM images reveal that electron flow from a collimating contact disappears quickly at B = 0.05T while the flow from a non-collimating contact persists up to B = 0.19 T. Ray tracing simulations agree well with the experimental images over a range of B and electron density n. By fitting the half-width at half-max (HWHM) of the magnitude of electron flow in the experimental SGM images, we find a narrow half angular width {\Delta}{\theta} = 9.2{\deg} for the electron flow from the collimating contact, compared with a wide flow {\Delta}{\theta} = 54{\deg} from the non-collimating contact.
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titleImaging electron flow from collimating contacts in graphene
authorBhandari, Sagar ; Gil-Ho, Lee ; Watanabe, Kenji ; Taniguchi, Takashi ; Kim, Philip ; Westervelt, Robert
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9Raster Scanning
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12Emitters (Electron)
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15Coherence Length
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abstractThe ballistic motion of electrons in graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) promises exciting opportunities for electron-optics devices. A narrow electron beam is desired, with both the mean free path and coherence length exceeding the device size. One can form a collimating contact in graphene by adding zigzag contacts on either side of the electron emitter that absorb stray electrons to form a collimated electron beam [23]. Here we provide images of electron flow from a collimating contact that directly show the width and shape of the electron beam, obtained using a Scanning Gate Microscope (SGM) cooled to 4.2 K. The device is a hBN-encapsulated graphene hall bar with narrow side contacts on either side of the channel that have an electron emitter at the end and absorbing zig-zag contacts at both side. To form an image of electron flow, the SGM tip is raster scanned at a constant height above the sample surface while the transmission to a receiving contact on opposite sides of the channel is measured. By displaying the change {\Delta}T vs. tip position, an image of ballistic flow is obtained. The angular width of the electron beam leaving the collimating contact is found by applying a perpendicular magnetic field B that bends electron paths into cyclotron orbits. SGM images reveal that electron flow from a collimating contact disappears quickly at B = 0.05T while the flow from a non-collimating contact persists up to B = 0.19 T. Ray tracing simulations agree well with the experimental images over a range of B and electron density n. By fitting the half-width at half-max (HWHM) of the magnitude of electron flow in the experimental SGM images, we find a narrow half angular width {\Delta}{\theta} = 9.2{\deg} for the electron flow from the collimating contact, compared with a wide flow {\Delta}{\theta} = 54{\deg} from the non-collimating contact.
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date2017-10-27