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Visualizing Encapsulated Graphene, its Defects and its Charge Environment by Sub-Micrometer Resolution Electrical Imaging

Devices made from two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides possess interesting electronic properties that can become accessible to experimental probes when the samples are protected from deleterious environmental effects by encapsulating them between hexago... Full description

Journal Title: arXiv.org Nov 14, 2018
Main Author: Altvater, Michael
Other Authors: Zhu, Tianhui , Li, Guohong , Watanabe, Kenji , Taniguchi, Takashi , Andrei, Eva
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
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recordid: proquest2133673363
title: Visualizing Encapsulated Graphene, its Defects and its Charge Environment by Sub-Micrometer Resolution Electrical Imaging
format: Article
creator:
  • Altvater, Michael
  • Zhu, Tianhui
  • Li, Guohong
  • Watanabe, Kenji
  • Taniguchi, Takashi
  • Andrei, Eva
subjects:
  • Defects
  • Microscopy
  • Post-Processing
  • Encapsulation
  • Graphene
  • Contaminants
  • Flakes (Defects)
  • Atomic Force Microscopy
  • Image Detection
  • Environmental Effects
  • Heterostructures
  • Variations
  • Mapping
  • Transition Metals
  • Conductors
  • Boron Nitride
  • Defects
  • Two Dimensional Materials
ispartof: arXiv.org, Nov 14, 2018
description: Devices made from two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides possess interesting electronic properties that can become accessible to experimental probes when the samples are protected from deleterious environmental effects by encapsulating them between hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) layers. While the encapsulated flakes can be detected through post-processing of optical images or confocal Raman mapping, these techniques lack the sub-micrometer scale resolution to identify tears, structural defects or impurities, which is crucial for the fabrication of high-quality devices. Here we demonstrate a simple method to visualize such buried flakes with sub-micrometer resolution, by combining Kelvin force probe microscopy (KPFM) with electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). KPFM, which measures surface potential fluctuations, is extremely effective in spotting charged contaminants within and on top of the heterostructure, making it possible to distinguish contaminated regions in the buried flake. When applying a tip bias larger than the surface potential fluctuations, EFM becomes extremely efficient in highlighting encapsulated flakes and their sub-micron structural defects. We show that these imaging modes, which are standard extensions of atomic force microscopy (AFM), are perfectly suited for locating encapsulated conductors, for visualizing nanometer scale defects and bubbles, and for characterizing their local charge environment.
language: eng
source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved
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fulltext: fulltext_linktorsrc
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titleVisualizing Encapsulated Graphene, its Defects and its Charge Environment by Sub-Micrometer Resolution Electrical Imaging
creatorAltvater, Michael ; Zhu, Tianhui ; Li, Guohong ; Watanabe, Kenji ; Taniguchi, Takashi ; Andrei, Eva
contributorAndrei, Eva (pacrepositoryorg)
ispartofarXiv.org, Nov 14, 2018
subjectDefects ; Microscopy ; Post-Processing ; Encapsulation ; Graphene ; Contaminants ; Flakes (Defects) ; Atomic Force Microscopy ; Image Detection ; Environmental Effects ; Heterostructures ; Variations ; Mapping ; Transition Metals ; Conductors ; Boron Nitride ; Defects ; Two Dimensional Materials
descriptionDevices made from two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides possess interesting electronic properties that can become accessible to experimental probes when the samples are protected from deleterious environmental effects by encapsulating them between hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) layers. While the encapsulated flakes can be detected through post-processing of optical images or confocal Raman mapping, these techniques lack the sub-micrometer scale resolution to identify tears, structural defects or impurities, which is crucial for the fabrication of high-quality devices. Here we demonstrate a simple method to visualize such buried flakes with sub-micrometer resolution, by combining Kelvin force probe microscopy (KPFM) with electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). KPFM, which measures surface potential fluctuations, is extremely effective in spotting charged contaminants within and on top of the heterostructure, making it possible to distinguish contaminated regions in the buried flake. When applying a tip bias larger than the surface potential fluctuations, EFM becomes extremely efficient in highlighting encapsulated flakes and their sub-micron structural defects. We show that these imaging modes, which are standard extensions of atomic force microscopy (AFM), are perfectly suited for locating encapsulated conductors, for visualizing nanometer scale defects and bubbles, and for characterizing their local charge environment.
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titleVisualizing Encapsulated Graphene, its Defects and its Charge Environment by Sub-Micrometer Resolution Electrical Imaging
descriptionDevices made from two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides possess interesting electronic properties that can become accessible to experimental probes when the samples are protected from deleterious environmental effects by encapsulating them between hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) layers. While the encapsulated flakes can be detected through post-processing of optical images or confocal Raman mapping, these techniques lack the sub-micrometer scale resolution to identify tears, structural defects or impurities, which is crucial for the fabrication of high-quality devices. Here we demonstrate a simple method to visualize such buried flakes with sub-micrometer resolution, by combining Kelvin force probe microscopy (KPFM) with electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). KPFM, which measures surface potential fluctuations, is extremely effective in spotting charged contaminants within and on top of the heterostructure, making it possible to distinguish contaminated regions in the buried flake. When applying a tip bias larger than the surface potential fluctuations, EFM becomes extremely efficient in highlighting encapsulated flakes and their sub-micron structural defects. We show that these imaging modes, which are standard extensions of atomic force microscopy (AFM), are perfectly suited for locating encapsulated conductors, for visualizing nanometer scale defects and bubbles, and for characterizing their local charge environment.
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11Variations
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titleVisualizing Encapsulated Graphene, its Defects and its Charge Environment by Sub-Micrometer Resolution Electrical Imaging
authorAltvater, Michael ; Zhu, Tianhui ; Li, Guohong ; Watanabe, Kenji ; Taniguchi, Takashi ; Andrei, Eva
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9Environmental Effects
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16Two Dimensional Materials
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abstractDevices made from two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides possess interesting electronic properties that can become accessible to experimental probes when the samples are protected from deleterious environmental effects by encapsulating them between hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) layers. While the encapsulated flakes can be detected through post-processing of optical images or confocal Raman mapping, these techniques lack the sub-micrometer scale resolution to identify tears, structural defects or impurities, which is crucial for the fabrication of high-quality devices. Here we demonstrate a simple method to visualize such buried flakes with sub-micrometer resolution, by combining Kelvin force probe microscopy (KPFM) with electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). KPFM, which measures surface potential fluctuations, is extremely effective in spotting charged contaminants within and on top of the heterostructure, making it possible to distinguish contaminated regions in the buried flake. When applying a tip bias larger than the surface potential fluctuations, EFM becomes extremely efficient in highlighting encapsulated flakes and their sub-micron structural defects. We show that these imaging modes, which are standard extensions of atomic force microscopy (AFM), are perfectly suited for locating encapsulated conductors, for visualizing nanometer scale defects and bubbles, and for characterizing their local charge environment.
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date2018-11-14