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Gamma-Ray Emission from the Shell of Supernova Remnant W44 Revealed by the Fermi LAT

Recent observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) hint that they accelerate cosmic rays to energies close to 610 super(15) electron volts. However, the nature of the particles that produce the emission remains ambiguous. We report observations of SNR W44 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope at energie... Full description

Journal Title: Science (Washington) Feb 19, 2010, Vol.327(5969), pp.1103-1106
Main Author: Abdo, A
Other Authors: Ackermann, M , Ajello, M , Baldini, L , Ballet, J , Barbiellini, G , Baring, M , Bastieri, D , Baughman, B , Bechtol, K , Bellazzini, R , Berenji, B , Blandford, R , Bloom, Ed , Bonamente, E , Borgland, A , Bregeon, J , Brez, A , Brigida, M , Bruel, P , Burnett, Th , Buson, S , Caliandro, G , Cameron, R , Caraveo, P , Casandjian, J , Cecchi, C , Celik, O , Chekhtman, A , Cheung, C , Chiang, J , Ciprini, S , Claus, R , Cognard, I , Cohen-Tanugi, J , Cominsky, L , Conrad, J , Cutini, S , Dermer, C , De Angelis, A , De Palma, F , Digel, S , Drell, P , Dubois, R , Dumora, D , Espinoza, C , Farnier, C , Favuzzi, C , Fegan, S , Focke, W , Fortin, P , Frailis, M , Fukazawa, Y , Funk, S , Fusco, P , Gargano, F , Gasparrini, D , Gehrels, N , Germani, S , Giavitto, G , Giebels, B , Giglietto, N , Giordano, F , Glanzman, T , Godfrey, G , Grenier, Ia , Grondin, M-H , Grove, Je , Guillemot, L , Guiriec, S , Hanabata, Y , Harding, A , Hayashida, M , Hays, E , Hughes, R , Jackson, G , Johannesson, A , Johnson, T , Johnson, W , Johnson, T , Kamae, H , Katagiri, J , Kataoka, J , Katsuta, N , Kawai, M , Kerr, J , Knodlseder, M , Kocian, M , Kramer, M , Kuss, J , Lande, L , Latronico, M , Lemoine-Goumard, F , Longo, F , Loparco, B , Lott, M , Lovellette, P , Lubrano, A , Lyne, G , Madejski, A , Makeev, M , Mazziotta, Je , Mcenery, C , Meurer, P , Michelson, W , Mitthumsiri, T , Mizuno, C , Monte, ME , Monzani, A , Morselli, I , Moskalenko, S , Murgia, T , Nakamori, P , Nolan, J , Norris, A , Noutsos, E , Nuss, T , Ohsugi, N , Omodei, E , Orlando, J , Ormes, D , Paneque, D , Parent, V , Pelassa, M , Pepe, M , Pesce-Rollins, F , Piron, T , Porter, S , Raino, R , Rando, M , Razzano, A , Reimer, O , Reimer, T , Reposeur, L , Rochester, A , Rodriguez, R , Romani, M , Roth, F , Ryde, Hf-W , Sadrozinski, D , Sanchez, A , Sander, Pmsaz , Parkinson, J , Scargle, C , Sgro, E , Siskind, Da , Smith, P , Smith, G , Spandre, P , Spinelli, B , Stappers, F , Stecker, D , Strickman, H , Suson, H , Tajima, T , Takahashi, T , Takahashi, J , Tanaka, J , Thayer, G , Thayer, D , Theureau, L , Thompson, O , Tibaldo, D , Tibolla, G , Torres, A , Tosti, Y , Tramacere, T , Uchiyama, V , Usher, C , Vasileiou, N , Venter, V , Vilchez, P , Vitale, B , Waite, K , Wang, R , Winer, T , Wood, M , Yamazaki, A , Ylinen, A , Ziegler, A , Abdo, A
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 0036-8075 ; E-ISSN: 1095-9203 ; DOI: 10.1126/science.1182787
Link: http://search.proquest.com/docview/21431263/?pq-origsite=primo
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title: Gamma-Ray Emission from the Shell of Supernova Remnant W44 Revealed by the Fermi LAT
format: Article
creator:
  • Abdo, A
  • Ackermann, M
  • Ajello, M
  • Baldini, L
  • Ballet, J
  • Barbiellini, G
  • Baring, M
  • Bastieri, D
  • Baughman, B
  • Bechtol, K
  • Bellazzini, R
  • Berenji, B
  • Blandford, R
  • Bloom, Ed
  • Bonamente, E
  • Borgland, A
  • Bregeon, J
  • Brez, A
  • Brigida, M
  • Bruel, P
  • Burnett, Th
  • Buson, S
  • Caliandro, G
  • Cameron, R
  • Caraveo, P
  • Casandjian, J
  • Cecchi, C
  • Celik, O
  • Chekhtman, A
  • Cheung, C
  • Chiang, J
  • Ciprini, S
  • Claus, R
  • Cognard, I
  • Cohen-Tanugi, J
  • Cominsky, L
  • Conrad, J
  • Cutini, S
  • Dermer, C
  • De Angelis, A
  • De Palma, F
  • Digel, S
  • Drell, P
  • Dubois, R
  • Dumora, D
  • Espinoza, C
  • Farnier, C
  • Favuzzi, C
  • Fegan, S
  • Focke, W
  • Fortin, P
  • Frailis, M
  • Fukazawa, Y
  • Funk, S
  • Fusco, P
  • Gargano, F
  • Gasparrini, D
  • Gehrels, N
  • Germani, S
  • Giavitto, G
  • Giebels, B
  • Giglietto, N
  • Giordano, F
  • Glanzman, T
  • Godfrey, G
  • Grenier, Ia
  • Grondin, M-H
  • Grove, Je
  • Guillemot, L
  • Guiriec, S
  • Hanabata, Y
  • Harding, A
  • Hayashida, M
  • Hays, E
  • Hughes, R
  • Jackson, G
  • Johannesson, A
  • Johnson, T
  • Johnson, W
  • Johnson, T
  • Kamae, H
  • Katagiri, J
  • Kataoka, J
  • Katsuta, N
  • Kawai, M
  • Kerr, J
  • Knodlseder, M
  • Kocian, M
  • Kramer, M
  • Kuss, J
  • Lande, L
  • Latronico, M
  • Lemoine-Goumard, F
  • Longo, F
  • Loparco, B
  • Lott, M
  • Lovellette, P
  • Lubrano, A
  • Lyne, G
  • Madejski, A
  • Makeev, M
  • Mazziotta, Je
  • Mcenery, C
  • Meurer, P
  • Michelson, W
  • Mitthumsiri, T
  • Mizuno, C
  • Monte, ME
  • Monzani, A
  • Morselli, I
  • Moskalenko, S
  • Murgia, T
  • Nakamori, P
  • Nolan, J
  • Norris, A
  • Noutsos, E
  • Nuss, T
  • Ohsugi, N
  • Omodei, E
  • Orlando, J
  • Ormes, D
  • Paneque, D
  • Parent, V
  • Pelassa, M
  • Pepe, M
  • Pesce-Rollins, F
  • Piron, T
  • Porter, S
  • Raino, R
  • Rando, M
  • Razzano, A
  • Reimer, O
  • Reimer, T
  • Reposeur, L
  • Rochester, A
  • Rodriguez, R
  • Romani, M
  • Roth, F
  • Ryde, Hf-W
  • Sadrozinski, D
  • Sanchez, A
  • Sander, Pmsaz
  • Parkinson, J
  • Scargle, C
  • Sgro, E
  • Siskind, Da
  • Smith, P
  • Smith, G
  • Spandre, P
  • Spinelli, B
  • Stappers, F
  • Stecker, D
  • Strickman, H
  • Suson, H
  • Tajima, T
  • Takahashi, T
  • Takahashi, J
  • Tanaka, J
  • Thayer, G
  • Thayer, D
  • Theureau, L
  • Thompson, O
  • Tibaldo, D
  • Tibolla, G
  • Torres, A
  • Tosti, Y
  • Tramacere, T
  • Uchiyama, V
  • Usher, C
  • Vasileiou, N
  • Venter, V
  • Vilchez, P
  • Vitale, B
  • Waite, K
  • Wang, R
  • Winer, T
  • Wood, M
  • Yamazaki, A
  • Ylinen, A
  • Ziegler, A
  • Abdo, A
subjects:
  • Clouds
  • Telescopes
  • Gamma-Radiation
  • Environmental Effects
  • Cosmic Rays
  • Supernova Remnants
  • Stars, Universe (524)
ispartof: Science (Washington), Feb 19, 2010, Vol.327(5969), pp.1103-1106
description: Recent observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) hint that they accelerate cosmic rays to energies close to 610 super(15) electron volts. However, the nature of the particles that produce the emission remains ambiguous. We report observations of SNR W44 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope at energies between 2 x 10 super(8) electron volts and 3 x10 super(11) electron volts. The detection of a source with a morphology corresponding to the SNR shell implies that the emission is produced by particles accelerated there. The gamma-ray spectrum is well modeled with emission from protons and nuclei. Its steepening above 610 super(9) electron volts provides a probe with which to study how particle acceleration responds to environmental effects such as shock propagation in dense clouds and how accelerated particles are released into interstellar space.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0036-8075 ; E-ISSN: 1095-9203 ; DOI: 10.1126/science.1182787
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 00368075
  • 0036-8075
  • 10959203
  • 1095-9203
url: Link


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titleGamma-Ray Emission from the Shell of Supernova Remnant W44 Revealed by the Fermi LAT
creatorAbdo, A ; Ackermann, M ; Ajello, M ; Baldini, L ; Ballet, J ; Barbiellini, G ; Baring, M ; Bastieri, D ; Baughman, B ; Bechtol, K ; Bellazzini, R ; Berenji, B ; Blandford, R ; Bloom, Ed ; Bonamente, E ; Borgland, A ; Bregeon, J ; Brez, A ; Brigida, M ; Bruel, P ; Burnett, Th ; Buson, S ; Caliandro, G ; Cameron, R ; Caraveo, P ; Casandjian, J ; Cecchi, C ; Celik, O ; Chekhtman, A ; Cheung, C ; Chiang, J ; Ciprini, S ; Claus, R ; Cognard, I ; Cohen-Tanugi, J ; Cominsky, L ; Conrad, J ; Cutini, S ; Dermer, C ; De Angelis, A ; De Palma, F ; Digel, S ; Drell, P ; Dubois, R ; Dumora, D ; Espinoza, C ; Farnier, C ; Favuzzi, C ; Fegan, S ; Focke, W ; Fortin, P ; Frailis, M ; Fukazawa, Y ; Funk, S ; Fusco, P ; Gargano, F ; Gasparrini, D ; Gehrels, N ; Germani, S ; Giavitto, G ; Giebels, B ; Giglietto, N ; Giordano, F ; Glanzman, T ; Godfrey, G ; Grenier, Ia ; Grondin, M-H ; Grove, Je ; Guillemot, L ; Guiriec, S ; Hanabata, Y ; Harding, A ; Hayashida, M ; Hays, E ; Hughes, R ; Jackson, G ; Johannesson, A ; Johnson, T ; Johnson, W ; Johnson, T ; Kamae, H ; Katagiri, J ; Kataoka, J ; Katsuta, N ; Kawai, M ; Kerr, J ; Knodlseder, M ; Kocian, M ; Kramer, M ; Kuss, J ; Lande, L ; Latronico, M ; Lemoine-Goumard, F ; Longo, F ; Loparco, B ; Lott, M ; Lovellette, P ; Lubrano, A ; Lyne, G ; Madejski, A ; Makeev, M ; Mazziotta, Je ; Mcenery, C ; Meurer, P ; Michelson, W ; Mitthumsiri, T ; Mizuno, C ; Monte, ME ; Monzani, A ; Morselli, I ; Moskalenko, S ; Murgia, T ; Nakamori, P ; Nolan, J ; Norris, A ; Noutsos, E ; Nuss, T ; Ohsugi, N ; Omodei, E ; Orlando, J ; Ormes, D ; Paneque, D ; Parent, V ; Pelassa, M ; Pepe, M ; Pesce-Rollins, F ; Piron, T ; Porter, S ; Raino, R ; Rando, M ; Razzano, A ; Reimer, O ; Reimer, T ; Reposeur, L ; Rochester, A ; Rodriguez, R ; Romani, M ; Roth, F ; Ryde, Hf-W ; Sadrozinski, D ; Sanchez, A ; Sander, Pmsaz ; Parkinson, J ; Scargle, C ; Sgro, E ; Siskind, Da ; Smith, P ; Smith, G ; Spandre, P ; Spinelli, B ; Stappers, F ; Stecker, D ; Strickman, H ; Suson, H ; Tajima, T ; Takahashi, T ; Takahashi, J ; Tanaka, J ; Thayer, G ; Thayer, D ; Theureau, L ; Thompson, O ; Tibaldo, D ; Tibolla, G ; Torres, A ; Tosti, Y ; Tramacere, T ; Uchiyama, V ; Usher, C ; Vasileiou, N ; Venter, V ; Vilchez, P ; Vitale, B ; Waite, K ; Wang, R ; Winer, T ; Wood, M ; Yamazaki, A ; Ylinen, A ; Ziegler, A ; Abdo, A
contributorAbdo, A (correspondence author)
ispartofScience (Washington), Feb 19, 2010, Vol.327(5969), pp.1103-1106
identifier
subjectClouds ; Telescopes ; Gamma-Radiation ; Environmental Effects ; Cosmic Rays ; Supernova Remnants ; Stars, Universe (524)
descriptionRecent observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) hint that they accelerate cosmic rays to energies close to 610 super(15) electron volts. However, the nature of the particles that produce the emission remains ambiguous. We report observations of SNR W44 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope at energies between 2 x 10 super(8) electron volts and 3 x10 super(11) electron volts. The detection of a source with a morphology corresponding to the SNR shell implies that the emission is produced by particles accelerated there. The gamma-ray spectrum is well modeled with emission from protons and nuclei. Its steepening above 610 super(9) electron volts provides a probe with which to study how particle acceleration responds to environmental effects such as shock propagation in dense clouds and how accelerated particles are released into interstellar space.
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3Baldini, L
4Ballet, J
5Barbiellini, G
6Baring, M
7Bastieri, D
8Baughman, B
9Bechtol, K
10Bellazzini, R
11Berenji, B
12Blandford, R
13Bloom, Ed
14Bonamente, E
15Borgland, A
16Bregeon, J
17Brez, A
18Brigida, M
19Bruel, P
20Burnett, Th
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23Cameron, R
24Caraveo, P
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26Cecchi, C
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30Chiang, J
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36Conrad, J
37Cutini, S
38Dermer, C
39De Angelis, A
40De Palma, F
41Digel, S
42Drell, P
43Dubois, R
44Dumora, D
45Espinoza, C
46Farnier, C
47Favuzzi, C
48Fegan, S
49Focke, W
50Fortin, P
51Frailis, M
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53Funk, S
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57Gehrels, N
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59Giavitto, G
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62Giordano, F
63Glanzman, T
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69Guiriec, S
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80Katagiri, J
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87Kramer, M
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91Lemoine-Goumard, F
92Longo, F
93Loparco, B
94Lott, M
95Lovellette, P
96Lubrano, A
97Lyne, G
98Madejski, A
99Makeev, M
100...
titleGamma-Ray Emission from the Shell of Supernova Remnant W44 Revealed by the Fermi LAT
descriptionRecent observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) hint that they accelerate cosmic rays to energies close to 610 super(15) electron volts. However, the nature of the particles that produce the emission remains ambiguous. We report observations of SNR W44 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope at energies between 2 x 10 super(8) electron volts and 3 x10 super(11) electron volts. The detection of a source with a morphology corresponding to the SNR shell implies that the emission is produced by particles accelerated there. The gamma-ray spectrum is well modeled with emission from protons and nuclei. Its steepening above 610 super(9) electron volts provides a probe with which to study how particle acceleration responds to environmental effects such as shock propagation in dense clouds and how accelerated particles are released into interstellar space.
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titleGamma-Ray Emission from the Shell of Supernova Remnant W44 Revealed by the Fermi LAT
authorAbdo, A ; Ackermann, M ; Ajello, M ; Baldini, L ; Ballet, J ; Barbiellini, G ; Baring, M ; Bastieri, D ; Baughman, B ; Bechtol, K ; Bellazzini, R ; Berenji, B ; Blandford, R ; Bloom, Ed ; Bonamente, E ; Borgland, A ; Bregeon, J ; Brez, A ; Brigida, M ; Bruel, P ; Burnett, Th ; Buson, S ; Caliandro, G ; Cameron, R ; Caraveo, P ; Casandjian, J ; Cecchi, C ; Celik, O ; Chekhtman, A ; Cheung, C ; Chiang, J ; Ciprini, S ; Claus, R ; Cognard, I ; Cohen-Tanugi, J ; Cominsky, L ; Conrad, J ; Cutini, S ; Dermer, C ; De Angelis, A ; De Palma, F ; Digel, S ; Drell, P ; Dubois, R ; Dumora, D ; Espinoza, C ; Farnier, C ; Favuzzi, C ; Fegan, S ; Focke, W ; Fortin, P ; Frailis, M ; Fukazawa, Y ; Funk, S ; Fusco, P ; Gargano, F ; Gasparrini, D ; Gehrels, N ; Germani, S ; Giavitto, G ; Giebels, B ; Giglietto, N ; Giordano, F ; Glanzman, T ; Godfrey, G ; Grenier, Ia ; Grondin, M-H ; Grove, Je ; Guillemot, L ; Guiriec, S ; Hanabata, Y ; Harding, A ; Hayashida, M ; Hays, E ; Hughes, R ; Jackson, G ; Johannesson, A ; Johnson, T ; Johnson, W ; Johnson, T ; Kamae, H ; Katagiri, J ; Kataoka, J ; Katsuta, N ; Kawai, M ; Kerr, J ; Knodlseder, M ; Kocian, M ; Kramer, M ; Kuss, J ; Lande, L ; Latronico, M ; Lemoine-Goumard, F ; Longo, F ; Loparco, B ; Lott, M ; Lovellette, P ; Lubrano, A ; Lyne, G ; Madejski, A ; Makeev, M ; Mazziotta, Je ; Mcenery, C ; Meurer, P ; Michelson, W ; Mitthumsiri, T ; Mizuno, C ; Monte, ME ; Monzani, A ; Morselli, I ; Moskalenko, S ; Murgia, T ; Nakamori, P ; Nolan, J ; Norris, A ; Noutsos, E ; Nuss, T ; Ohsugi, N ; Omodei, E ; Orlando, J ; Ormes, D ; Paneque, D ; Parent, V ; Pelassa, M ; Pepe, M ; Pesce-Rollins, F ; Piron, T ; Porter, S ; Raino, R ; Rando, M ; Razzano, A ; Reimer, O ; Reimer, T ; Reposeur, L ; Rochester, A ; Rodriguez, R ; Romani, M ; Roth, F ; Ryde, Hf-W ; Sadrozinski, D ; Sanchez, A ; Sander, Pmsaz ; Parkinson, J ; Scargle, C ; Sgro, E ; Siskind, Da ; Smith, P ; Smith, G ; Spandre, P ; Spinelli, B ; Stappers, F ; Stecker, D ; Strickman, H ; Suson, H ; Tajima, T ; Takahashi, T ; Takahashi, J ; Tanaka, J ; Thayer, G ; Thayer, D ; Theureau, L ; Thompson, O ; Tibaldo, D ; Tibolla, G ; Torres, A ; Tosti, Y ; Tramacere, T ; Uchiyama, V ; Usher, C ; Vasileiou, N ; Venter, V ; Vilchez, P ; Vitale, B ; Waite, K ; Wang, R ; Winer, T ; Wood, M ; Yamazaki, A ; Ylinen, A ; Ziegler, A ; Abdo, A
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92Longo, F
93Loparco, B
94Lott, M
95Lovellette, P
96Lubrano, A
97Lyne, G
98Madejski, A
99Makeev, M
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11Berenji
12Blandford
13Bloom
14Bonamente
15Borgland
16Bregeon
17Brez
18Brigida
19Bruel
20Burnett
21Buson
22Caliandro
23Cameron
24Caraveo
25Casandjian
26Cecchi
27Celik
28Chekhtman
29Cheung
30Chiang
31Ciprini
32Claus
33Cognard
34Cohen-Tanugi
35Cominsky
36Conrad
37Cutini
38Dermer
39De Angelis
40De Palma
41Digel
42Drell
43Dubois
44Dumora
45Espinoza
46Farnier
47Favuzzi
48Fegan
49Focke
50Fortin
51Frailis
52Fukazawa
53Funk
54Fusco
55Gargano
56Gasparrini
57Gehrels
58Germani
59Giavitto
60Giebels
61Giglietto
62Giordano
63Glanzman
64Godfrey
65Grenier
66Grondin
67Grove
68Guillemot
69Guiriec
70Hanabata
71Harding
72Hayashida
73Hays
74Hughes
75Jackson
76Johannesson
77Johnson
78Kamae
79Katagiri
80Kataoka
81Katsuta
82Kawai
83Kerr
84Knodlseder
85Kocian
86Kramer
87Kuss
88Lande
89Latronico
90Lemoine-Goumard
91Longo
92Loparco
93Lott
94Lovellette
95Lubrano
96Lyne
97Madejski
98Makeev
99Mazziotta
100...
aufirst
0A
1M
2L
3J
4G
5D
6B
7K
8R
9ED
10E
11P
12TH
13S
14C
15O
16I
17F
18W
19Y
20N
21T
22IA
23M-H
24JE
25H
26ME
27V
28HF-W
29PMSaz
30DA
au
0Abdo, A
1Ackermann, M
2Ajello, M
3Baldini, L
4Ballet, J
5Barbiellini, G
6Baring, M
7Bastieri, D
8Baughman, B
9Bechtol, K
10Bellazzini, R
11Berenji, B
12Blandford, R
13Bloom, Ed
14Bonamente, E
15Borgland, A
16Bregeon, J
17Brez, A
18Brigida, M
19Bruel, P
20Burnett, Th
21Buson, S
22Caliandro, G
23Cameron, R
24Caraveo, P
25Casandjian, J
26Cecchi, C
27Celik, O
28Chekhtman, A
29Cheung, C
30Chiang, J
31Ciprini, S
32Claus, R
33Cognard, I
34Cohen-Tanugi, J
35Cominsky, L
36Conrad, J
37Cutini, S
38Dermer, C
39De Angelis, A
40De Palma, F
41Digel, S
42Drell, P
43Dubois, R
44Dumora, D
45Espinoza, C
46Farnier, C
47Favuzzi, C
48Fegan, S
49Focke, W
50Fortin, P
51Frailis, M
52Fukazawa, Y
53Funk, S
54Fusco, P
55Gargano, F
56Gasparrini, D
57Gehrels, N
58Germani, S
59Giavitto, G
60Giebels, B
61Giglietto, N
62Giordano, F
63Glanzman, T
64Godfrey, G
65Grenier, Ia
66Grondin, M-H
67Grove, Je
68Guillemot, L
69Guiriec, S
70Hanabata, Y
71Harding, A
72Hayashida, M
73Hays, E
74Hughes, R
75Jackson, G
76Johannesson, A
77Johnson, T
78Johnson, W
79Kamae, H
80Katagiri, J
81Kataoka, J
82Katsuta, N
83Kawai, M
84Kerr, J
85Knodlseder, M
86Kocian, M
87Kramer, M
88Kuss, J
89Lande, L
90Latronico, M
91Lemoine-Goumard, F
92Longo, F
93Loparco, B
94Lott, M
95Lovellette, P
96Lubrano, A
97Lyne, G
98Madejski, A
99Makeev, M
100...
addauAbdo, A
atitleGamma-Ray Emission from the Shell of Supernova Remnant W44 Revealed by the Fermi LAT
jtitleScience (Washington)
risdate20100219
volume327
issue5969
spage1103
epage1106
pages1103-1106
issn0036-8075
eissn1095-9203
formatjournal
genrearticle
ristypeJOUR
abstractRecent observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) hint that they accelerate cosmic rays to energies close to 610 super(15) electron volts. However, the nature of the particles that produce the emission remains ambiguous. We report observations of SNR W44 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope at energies between 2 x 10 super(8) electron volts and 3 x10 super(11) electron volts. The detection of a source with a morphology corresponding to the SNR shell implies that the emission is produced by particles accelerated there. The gamma-ray spectrum is well modeled with emission from protons and nuclei. Its steepening above 610 super(9) electron volts provides a probe with which to study how particle acceleration responds to environmental effects such as shock propagation in dense clouds and how accelerated particles are released into interstellar space.
doi10.1126/science.1182787
urlhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/21431263/
orcidid0000-0002-0014-7809: 0000-0001-6885-7156
date2010-02-26