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A prospective study of the intake of vitamins C, E, and A and the risk of breast cancer

Background Although it has been hypothesized that large intakes of the antioxidant vitamins C, E, and A reduce the risk of breast cancer, few prospective data are available. Methods We prospectively studied 89,494 women who were 34 to 59 years old in 1980 and who did not have diagnosed cancer. Their... Full description

Journal Title: The New England Journal of Medicine Jul 22, 1993, Vol.329(4), pp.234-240
Main Author: Hunter, David J
Other Authors: Manson, Joann E , Colditz, Graham A , Stampfer, Meir J , Rosner, Bernard , Hennekens, Charles H , Speizer, Frank E , Willett, Walter C
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 00284793
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title: A prospective study of the intake of vitamins C, E, and A and the risk of breast cancer
format: Article
creator:
  • Hunter, David J
  • Manson, Joann E
  • Colditz, Graham A
  • Stampfer, Meir J
  • Rosner, Bernard
  • Hennekens, Charles H
  • Speizer, Frank E
  • Willett, Walter C
subjects:
  • Adult–Administration & Dosage
  • Ascorbic Acid–Epidemiology
  • Breast Neoplasms–Etiology
  • Breast Neoplasms–Prevention & Control
  • Breast Neoplasms–Administration & Dosage
  • Diet–Administration & Dosage
  • Female–Administration & Dosage
  • Follow-Up Studies–Administration & Dosage
  • Food Habits–Administration & Dosage
  • Humans–Administration & Dosage
  • Incidence–Administration & Dosage
  • Middle Aged–Administration & Dosage
  • Prospective Studies–Administration & Dosage
  • Risk Factors–Administration & Dosage
  • Vitamin A–Administration & Dosage
  • Vitamin E–Administration & Dosage
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin A
  • Breast Cancer
  • Vitamin C
  • Womens Health
  • Food
  • Questionnaires
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin E
  • Ascorbic Acid
ispartof: The New England Journal of Medicine, Jul 22, 1993, Vol.329(4), pp.234-240
description: Background Although it has been hypothesized that large intakes of the antioxidant vitamins C, E, and A reduce the risk of breast cancer, few prospective data are available. Methods We prospectively studied 89,494 women who were 34 to 59 years old in 1980 and who did not have diagnosed cancer. Their intakes of vitamins C, E, and A from foods and supplements were assessed at base line and in 1984 with the use of a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Results Breast cancer was diagnosed in 1439 women during eight years of follow-up. After multivariate adjustment for known risk factors, the relative risk among women in the highest quintile group for intake of vitamin C as compared with the risk among those in the lowest quintile group was 1.03 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.21); for vitamin E, after vitamin A intake had been controlled for, the relative risk was 0.99 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.19). In contrast, among women in the highest quintile group for intake of total vitamin A the relative risk was 0.84 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.98; P for trend = 0.001). Among women in the lowest quintile group for intake of vitamin A from food, consumption of vitamin A from supplements was associated with a reduced risk (P = 0.03). The significant inverse association of vitamin A intake with the risk of breast cancer was also found on study of data based on the 1984 questionnaire and four years of follow-up. Conclusions Large intakes of vitamin C or E did not protect women in our study from breast cancer. A low intake of vitamin A may increase the risk of this disease; any benefit of vitamin A supplements may be limited to women with diets low in vitamin A.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 00284793
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 00284793
  • 0028-4793
url: Link


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titleA prospective study of the intake of vitamins C, E, and A and the risk of breast cancer
creatorHunter, David J ; Manson, Joann E ; Colditz, Graham A ; Stampfer, Meir J ; Rosner, Bernard ; Hennekens, Charles H ; Speizer, Frank E ; Willett, Walter C
ispartofThe New England Journal of Medicine, Jul 22, 1993, Vol.329(4), pp.234-240
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descriptionBackground Although it has been hypothesized that large intakes of the antioxidant vitamins C, E, and A reduce the risk of breast cancer, few prospective data are available. Methods We prospectively studied 89,494 women who were 34 to 59 years old in 1980 and who did not have diagnosed cancer. Their intakes of vitamins C, E, and A from foods and supplements were assessed at base line and in 1984 with the use of a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Results Breast cancer was diagnosed in 1439 women during eight years of follow-up. After multivariate adjustment for known risk factors, the relative risk among women in the highest quintile group for intake of vitamin C as compared with the risk among those in the lowest quintile group was 1.03 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.21); for vitamin E, after vitamin A intake had been controlled for, the relative risk was 0.99 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.19). In contrast, among women in the highest quintile group for intake of total vitamin A the relative risk was 0.84 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.98; P for trend = 0.001). Among women in the lowest quintile group for intake of vitamin A from food, consumption of vitamin A from supplements was associated with a reduced risk (P = 0.03). The significant inverse association of vitamin A intake with the risk of breast cancer was also found on study of data based on the 1984 questionnaire and four years of follow-up. Conclusions Large intakes of vitamin C or E did not protect women in our study from breast cancer. A low intake of vitamin A may increase the risk of this disease; any benefit of vitamin A supplements may be limited to women with diets low in vitamin A.
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titleA prospective study of the intake of vitamins C, E, and A and the risk of breast cancer
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titleA prospective study of the intake of vitamins C, E, and A and the risk of breast cancer
authorHunter, David J ; Manson, Joann E ; Colditz, Graham A ; Stampfer, Meir J ; Rosner, Bernard ; Hennekens, Charles H ; Speizer, Frank E ; Willett, Walter C
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abstractBackground Although it has been hypothesized that large intakes of the antioxidant vitamins C, E, and A reduce the risk of breast cancer, few prospective data are available. Methods We prospectively studied 89,494 women who were 34 to 59 years old in 1980 and who did not have diagnosed cancer. Their intakes of vitamins C, E, and A from foods and supplements were assessed at base line and in 1984 with the use of a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Results Breast cancer was diagnosed in 1439 women during eight years of follow-up. After multivariate adjustment for known risk factors, the relative risk among women in the highest quintile group for intake of vitamin C as compared with the risk among those in the lowest quintile group was 1.03 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.21); for vitamin E, after vitamin A intake had been controlled for, the relative risk was 0.99 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.19). In contrast, among women in the highest quintile group for intake of total vitamin A the relative risk was 0.84 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.98; P for trend = 0.001). Among women in the lowest quintile group for intake of vitamin A from food, consumption of vitamin A from supplements was associated with a reduced risk (P = 0.03). The significant inverse association of vitamin A intake with the risk of breast cancer was also found on study of data based on the 1984 questionnaire and four years of follow-up. Conclusions Large intakes of vitamin C or E did not protect women in our study from breast cancer. A low intake of vitamin A may increase the risk of this disease; any benefit of vitamin A supplements may be limited to women with diets low in vitamin A.
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