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Separating nanoparticles from microemulsions

Graphical abstract Nanoparticles synthesised in water-in-oil microemulsions can be easily separated from the reaction medium by steep dilution with water. Research highlights ► A low-energy, isothermal, easy to apply and cost-effective purification route for processing inorganic nanoparticles from m... Full description

Journal Title: Journal of Colloid And Interface Science 2011, Vol.354(2), pp.624-629
Main Author: Nazar, Muhammad Faizan
Other Authors: Myakonkaya, Olesya , Shah, Syed Sakhawat , Eastoe, Julian
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 0021-9797 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2010.11.017
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2010.11.017
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recordid: sciversesciencedirect_elsevierS0021-9797(10)01295-6
title: Separating nanoparticles from microemulsions
format: Article
creator:
  • Nazar, Muhammad Faizan
  • Myakonkaya, Olesya
  • Shah, Syed Sakhawat
  • Eastoe, Julian
subjects:
  • Microemulsions
  • Nanoparticles
  • Nanoparticle Separation
ispartof: Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, 2011, Vol.354(2), pp.624-629
description: Graphical abstract Nanoparticles synthesised in water-in-oil microemulsions can be easily separated from the reaction medium by steep dilution with water. Research highlights ► A low-energy, isothermal, easy to apply and cost-effective purification route for processing inorganic nanoparticles from microemulsions is described. ► A water-induced separation can be used to recover nanoparticles from the reaction medium “at the flick of a switch”. ► This water dilution method appears to be quite general. Water-in-oil microemulsions (w/o μEs) stabilized by the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl) have been used as reaction media to generate Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs). In addition the pure μEs have been used as media to disperse Au and Pd-NPs, which have been pre-synthesised in aqueous phases and stabilized by sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES) ligands, and also commercially available SiO 2-NPs. A general method for recovery and separation of the nanoparticles from these mixed NP-μE systems has been demonstrated by tuning phase behavior of the background microemulsions. Addition of appropriate aliquots of water drives a clean liquid–liquid phase transition, resulting in two macroscopic layers, the NPs preferentially partition into an upper oil-rich phase and are separated from excess surfactant which resides in a lower aqueous portion. UV–vis and 1H NMR spectroscopy have been used to follow these separation processes and quantify the recovery and recycle efficiencies for the different NPs. For example, ∼90% of the microemulsion-prepared Au-NPs can be recovered; with even greater separation efficiencies attainable for pre-synthesised MES-stabilized Au-MES-NPs (∼98%) and Pd-MES-NPs (92%). For the silica NP-μE dispersions gravimetry indicates ∼84% recovery of the NPs. TEM images of all systems showed that NP shapes and size distributions were generally preserved after these phase transfer processes. This low-energy and cost-effective purification route appears to be a quite general approach for processing different inorganic NPs, having advantages of being isothermal, using only commercially available inexpensive components and requiring no additional organic solvents.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0021-9797 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2010.11.017
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 00219797
  • 0021-9797
url: Link


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identifierISSN: 0021-9797 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2010.11.017
subjectMicroemulsions ; Nanoparticles ; Nanoparticle Separation
descriptionGraphical abstract Nanoparticles synthesised in water-in-oil microemulsions can be easily separated from the reaction medium by steep dilution with water. Research highlights ► A low-energy, isothermal, easy to apply and cost-effective purification route for processing inorganic nanoparticles from microemulsions is described. ► A water-induced separation can be used to recover nanoparticles from the reaction medium “at the flick of a switch”. ► This water dilution method appears to be quite general. Water-in-oil microemulsions (w/o μEs) stabilized by the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl) have been used as reaction media to generate Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs). In addition the pure μEs have been used as media to disperse Au and Pd-NPs, which have been pre-synthesised in aqueous phases and stabilized by sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES) ligands, and also commercially available SiO 2-NPs. A general method for recovery and separation of the nanoparticles from these mixed NP-μE systems has been demonstrated by tuning phase behavior of the background microemulsions. Addition of appropriate aliquots of water drives a clean liquid–liquid phase transition, resulting in two macroscopic layers, the NPs preferentially partition into an upper oil-rich phase and are separated from excess surfactant which resides in a lower aqueous portion. UV–vis and 1H NMR spectroscopy have been used to follow these separation processes and quantify the recovery and recycle efficiencies for the different NPs. For example, ∼90% of the microemulsion-prepared Au-NPs can be recovered; with even greater separation efficiencies attainable for pre-synthesised MES-stabilized Au-MES-NPs (∼98%) and Pd-MES-NPs (92%). For the silica NP-μE dispersions gravimetry indicates ∼84% recovery of the NPs. TEM images of all systems showed that NP shapes and size distributions were generally preserved after these phase transfer processes. This low-energy and cost-effective purification route appears to be a quite general approach for processing different inorganic NPs, having advantages of being isothermal, using only commercially available inexpensive components and requiring no additional organic solvents.
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descriptionGraphical abstract Nanoparticles synthesised in water-in-oil microemulsions can be easily separated from the reaction medium by steep dilution with water. Research highlights ► A low-energy, isothermal, easy to apply and cost-effective purification route for processing inorganic nanoparticles from microemulsions is described. ► A water-induced separation can be used to recover nanoparticles from the reaction medium “at the flick of a switch”. ► This water dilution method appears to be quite general. Water-in-oil microemulsions (w/o μEs) stabilized by the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl) have been used as reaction media to generate Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs). In addition the pure μEs have been used as media to disperse Au and Pd-NPs, which have been pre-synthesised in aqueous phases and stabilized by sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES) ligands, and also commercially available SiO 2-NPs. A general method for recovery and separation of the nanoparticles from these mixed NP-μE systems has been demonstrated by tuning phase behavior of the background microemulsions. Addition of appropriate aliquots of water drives a clean liquid–liquid phase transition, resulting in two macroscopic layers, the NPs preferentially partition into an upper oil-rich phase and are separated from excess surfactant which resides in a lower aqueous portion. UV–vis and 1H NMR spectroscopy have been used to follow these separation processes and quantify the recovery and recycle efficiencies for the different NPs. For example, ∼90% of the microemulsion-prepared Au-NPs can be recovered; with even greater separation efficiencies attainable for pre-synthesised MES-stabilized Au-MES-NPs (∼98%) and Pd-MES-NPs (92%). For the silica NP-μE dispersions gravimetry indicates ∼84% recovery of the NPs. TEM images of all systems showed that NP shapes and size distributions were generally preserved after these phase transfer processes. This low-energy and cost-effective purification route appears to be a quite general approach for processing different inorganic NPs, having advantages of being isothermal, using only commercially available inexpensive components and requiring no additional organic solvents.
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abstractGraphical abstract Nanoparticles synthesised in water-in-oil microemulsions can be easily separated from the reaction medium by steep dilution with water. Research highlights ► A low-energy, isothermal, easy to apply and cost-effective purification route for processing inorganic nanoparticles from microemulsions is described. ► A water-induced separation can be used to recover nanoparticles from the reaction medium “at the flick of a switch”. ► This water dilution method appears to be quite general. Water-in-oil microemulsions (w/o μEs) stabilized by the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl) have been used as reaction media to generate Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs). In addition the pure μEs have been used as media to disperse Au and Pd-NPs, which have been pre-synthesised in aqueous phases and stabilized by sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES) ligands, and also commercially available SiO 2-NPs. A general method for recovery and separation of the nanoparticles from these mixed NP-μE systems has been demonstrated by tuning phase behavior of the background microemulsions. Addition of appropriate aliquots of water drives a clean liquid–liquid phase transition, resulting in two macroscopic layers, the NPs preferentially partition into an upper oil-rich phase and are separated from excess surfactant which resides in a lower aqueous portion. UV–vis and 1H NMR spectroscopy have been used to follow these separation processes and quantify the recovery and recycle efficiencies for the different NPs. For example, ∼90% of the microemulsion-prepared Au-NPs can be recovered; with even greater separation efficiencies attainable for pre-synthesised MES-stabilized Au-MES-NPs (∼98%) and Pd-MES-NPs (92%). For the silica NP-μE dispersions gravimetry indicates ∼84% recovery of the NPs. TEM images of all systems showed that NP shapes and size distributions were generally preserved after these phase transfer processes. This low-energy and cost-effective purification route appears to be a quite general approach for processing different inorganic NPs, having advantages of being isothermal, using only commercially available inexpensive components and requiring no additional organic solvents.
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