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Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter

Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture mana... Full description

Journal Title: Science of the Total Environment 15 December 2015, Vol.538, pp.979-985
Main Author: Dunlop, Mark W.
Other Authors: Blackall, Patrick J. , Stuetz, Richard M.
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 0048-9697 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.092
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.092
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recordid: sciversesciencedirect_elsevierS0048-9697(15)30598-2
title: Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter
format: Article
creator:
  • Dunlop, Mark W.
  • Blackall, Patrick J.
  • Stuetz, Richard M.
subjects:
  • Broiler
  • Litter Moisture Content
  • Wet Litter
ispartof: Science of the Total Environment, 15 December 2015, Vol.538, pp.979-985
description: Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison—litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m2, assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m2/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m2. Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m2/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis. •Water added daily to litter by meat chickens was estimated using an equation•Water added to litter from excreta and spillage can be as much as 3.2L/m2/day•Water holding capacity of litter increases during a grow-out cycle•Water evaporation rate depends on litter moisture content and air speed
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0048-9697 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.092
fulltext: no_fulltext
issn:
  • 00489697
  • 0048-9697
url: Link


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titleWater addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter
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ispartofScience of the Total Environment, 15 December 2015, Vol.538, pp.979-985
identifierISSN: 0048-9697 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.092
subjectBroiler ; Litter Moisture Content ; Wet Litter
descriptionLitter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison—litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m2, assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m2/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m2. Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m2/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis. •Water added daily to litter by meat chickens was estimated using an equation•Water added to litter from excreta and spillage can be as much as 3.2L/m2/day•Water holding capacity of litter increases during a grow-out cycle•Water evaporation rate depends on litter moisture content and air speed
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abstractLitter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison—litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m2, assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m2/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m2. Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m2/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis. •Water added daily to litter by meat chickens was estimated using an equation•Water added to litter from excreta and spillage can be as much as 3.2L/m2/day•Water holding capacity of litter increases during a grow-out cycle•Water evaporation rate depends on litter moisture content and air speed
pubElsevier B.V.
doi10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.092
eissn18791026
date2015-12-15