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A supportive family environment in childhood enhances the level and heritability of sense of coherence in early adulthood

Byline: Karri Silventoinen (1,2), Salla-Maarit Volanen (2,3), Eero Vuoksimaa (2), Richard J. Rose (4), Sakari Suominen (5), Jaakko Kaprio (2,6,7) Keywords: Childhood environment; Gene--environment interactions; Genetic factors; Sense of coherence Abstract: Purpose To analyze the effects of genetic a... Full description

Journal Title: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2014, Vol.49(12), pp.1951-1960
Main Author: Silventoinen, Karri
Other Authors: Volanen, Salla-Maarit , Vuoksimaa, Eero , Rose, Richard , Suominen, Sakari , Kaprio, Jaakko
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 0933-7954 ; E-ISSN: 1433-9285 ; DOI: 10.1007/s00127-014-0851-y
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-014-0851-y
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recordid: springer_jour10.1007/s00127-014-0851-y
title: A supportive family environment in childhood enhances the level and heritability of sense of coherence in early adulthood
format: Article
creator:
  • Silventoinen, Karri
  • Volanen, Salla-Maarit
  • Vuoksimaa, Eero
  • Rose, Richard
  • Suominen, Sakari
  • Kaprio, Jaakko
subjects:
  • Childhood environment
  • Gene–environment interactions
  • Genetic factors
  • Sense of coherence
ispartof: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2014, Vol.49(12), pp.1951-1960
description: Byline: Karri Silventoinen (1,2), Salla-Maarit Volanen (2,3), Eero Vuoksimaa (2), Richard J. Rose (4), Sakari Suominen (5), Jaakko Kaprio (2,6,7) Keywords: Childhood environment; Gene--environment interactions; Genetic factors; Sense of coherence Abstract: Purpose To analyze the effects of genetic and environmental factors on sense of coherence (SOC) in young adulthood and whether family environment measured in childhood modifies these effects. Methods SOC was measured at 20--27 years of age in 3,193 Finnish twins using the Antonovsky's 13-item short scale. The twins and their parents had rated their emotional family environment independently when the twins were 12 years of age. The data were analyzed using applications of structural linear equation modeling to twin data. Results Females rated SOC 2.42 points lower than males. Additive genetic factors explained 39 % of the variation of SOC in males and 49 % in females, whereas the rest of the variation was explained by environmental factors unique to each twin individual. For the dimensions of SOC, the highest genetic correlation was found between comprehensibility and manageability (0.90 in males and 0.97 in females). SOC was strongest in the participants who had reported supportive family atmosphere and low relational tensions to parents in childhood. These participants also had higher genetic variance and lower unique environmental variance of SOC when compared to those who reported emotionally more stressful family environment. The results were similar when we used parental rating of family environment. Conclusion Genetic factors are important for SOC, but genetic influences are much greater in supportive family environments. This emphasizes the importance of childhood home for the development of strong SOC. Author Affiliation: (1) Population Research Unit, Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 18, 00014, Helsinki, Finland (2) Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (3) Folkhalsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland (4) Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA (5) Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland (6) Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland (7) Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland Article History: Registration Date: 27/02/2014 Received Date: 13/06/2012 Accepte
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0933-7954 ; E-ISSN: 1433-9285 ; DOI: 10.1007/s00127-014-0851-y
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 1433-9285
  • 14339285
  • 0933-7954
  • 09337954
url: Link


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titleA supportive family environment in childhood enhances the level and heritability of sense of coherence in early adulthood
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descriptionByline: Karri Silventoinen (1,2), Salla-Maarit Volanen (2,3), Eero Vuoksimaa (2), Richard J. Rose (4), Sakari Suominen (5), Jaakko Kaprio (2,6,7) Keywords: Childhood environment; Gene--environment interactions; Genetic factors; Sense of coherence Abstract: Purpose To analyze the effects of genetic and environmental factors on sense of coherence (SOC) in young adulthood and whether family environment measured in childhood modifies these effects. Methods SOC was measured at 20--27 years of age in 3,193 Finnish twins using the Antonovsky's 13-item short scale. The twins and their parents had rated their emotional family environment independently when the twins were 12 years of age. The data were analyzed using applications of structural linear equation modeling to twin data. Results Females rated SOC 2.42 points lower than males. Additive genetic factors explained 39 % of the variation of SOC in males and 49 % in females, whereas the rest of the variation was explained by environmental factors unique to each twin individual. For the dimensions of SOC, the highest genetic correlation was found between comprehensibility and manageability (0.90 in males and 0.97 in females). SOC was strongest in the participants who had reported supportive family atmosphere and low relational tensions to parents in childhood. These participants also had higher genetic variance and lower unique environmental variance of SOC when compared to those who reported emotionally more stressful family environment. The results were similar when we used parental rating of family environment. Conclusion Genetic factors are important for SOC, but genetic influences are much greater in supportive family environments. This emphasizes the importance of childhood home for the development of strong SOC. Author Affiliation: (1) Population Research Unit, Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 18, 00014, Helsinki, Finland (2) Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (3) Folkhalsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland (4) Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA (5) Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland (6) Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland (7) Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland Article History: Registration Date: 27/02/2014 Received Date: 13/06/2012 Accepted Date: 27/02/2014 Online Date: 12/03/2014
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