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Identification and characterization of a novel liver-specific enhancer of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene

The liver-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Genetic defects in the gene result in the autosomal recessive disorder phenylketonuria. We have identified a phenylalanine hydroxylase mutation, designated as –4173_-407del, in a hyperphenylalaninemic... Full description

Journal Title: Human Genetics 2002, Vol.110(3), pp.235-243
Main Author: Chen, Kuan-Ju
Other Authors: Chao, Hung-Kun , Hsiao, Kwang-Jen , Su, Tsung-Sheng
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 0340-6717 ; E-ISSN: 1432-1203 ; DOI: 10.1007/s00439-002-0677-7
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-002-0677-7
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recordid: springer_jour10.1007/s00439-002-0677-7
title: Identification and characterization of a novel liver-specific enhancer of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene
format: Article
creator:
  • Chen, Kuan-Ju
  • Chao, Hung-Kun
  • Hsiao, Kwang-Jen
  • Su, Tsung-Sheng
subjects:
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic
  • Liver -- Enzymology
  • Phenylalanine Hydroxylase -- Genetics
ispartof: Human Genetics, 2002, Vol.110(3), pp.235-243
description: The liver-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Genetic defects in the gene result in the autosomal recessive disorder phenylketonuria. We have identified a phenylalanine hydroxylase mutation, designated as –4173_-407del, in a hyperphenylalaninemic patient with a 3.7-kb deletion in the 5'-flanking region of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Characterization of the deleted sequence has led to the identification of a novel liver-specific DNase I hypersensitive site located 3.3 kb upstream of the RNA initiation site of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. We show that this site comprises a liver-specific enhancer with cAMP responsiveness. We further show by mutational analysis that the enhancer carries a major hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-binding site important for the enhancer function but not for cAMP responsiveness. In transient transfection assays with a reporter gene, we demonstrate that a phenylalanine hydroxylase plasmid construct carrying the –4173_-407del mutation is severely impaired in phenylalanine hydroxylase transcriptional activity. Our data indicate that the 3.7-kb deletion uncovered in the genomic DNA of the phenylketonuria proband is linked to the observed phenylketonuria phenotype as a result of a deletion of the newly identified liver-specific enhancer. Our systematic approach to the analysis and subsequent discovery of the novel deletion mutation may be applicable to the search for other mutations in the 5' regulatory region of phenylalanine hydroxylase and other genes.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 0340-6717 ; E-ISSN: 1432-1203 ; DOI: 10.1007/s00439-002-0677-7
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 1432-1203
  • 14321203
  • 0340-6717
  • 03406717
url: Link


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titleIdentification and characterization of a novel liver-specific enhancer of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene
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descriptionThe liver-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Genetic defects in the gene result in the autosomal recessive disorder phenylketonuria. We have identified a phenylalanine hydroxylase mutation, designated as –4173_-407del, in a hyperphenylalaninemic patient with a 3.7-kb deletion in the 5'-flanking region of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Characterization of the deleted sequence has led to the identification of a novel liver-specific DNase I hypersensitive site located 3.3 kb upstream of the RNA initiation site of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. We show that this site comprises a liver-specific enhancer with cAMP responsiveness. We further show by mutational analysis that the enhancer carries a major hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-binding site important for the enhancer function but not for cAMP responsiveness. In transient transfection assays with a reporter gene, we demonstrate that a phenylalanine hydroxylase plasmid construct carrying the –4173_-407del mutation is severely impaired in phenylalanine hydroxylase transcriptional activity. Our data indicate that the 3.7-kb deletion uncovered in the genomic DNA of the phenylketonuria proband is linked to the observed phenylketonuria phenotype as a result of a deletion of the newly identified liver-specific enhancer. Our systematic approach to the analysis and subsequent discovery of the novel deletion mutation may be applicable to the search for other mutations in the 5' regulatory region of phenylalanine hydroxylase and other genes.
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titleIdentification and characterization of a novel liver-specific enhancer of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene
descriptionThe liver-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Genetic defects in the gene result in the autosomal recessive disorder phenylketonuria. We have identified a phenylalanine hydroxylase mutation, designated as –4173_-407del, in a hyperphenylalaninemic patient with a 3.7-kb deletion in the 5'-flanking region of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Characterization of the deleted sequence has led to the identification of a novel liver-specific DNase I hypersensitive site located 3.3 kb upstream of the RNA initiation site of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. We show that this site comprises a liver-specific enhancer with cAMP responsiveness. We further show by mutational analysis that the enhancer carries a major hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-binding site important for the enhancer function but not for cAMP responsiveness. In transient transfection assays with a reporter gene, we demonstrate that a phenylalanine hydroxylase plasmid construct carrying the –4173_-407del mutation is severely impaired in phenylalanine hydroxylase transcriptional activity. Our data indicate that the 3.7-kb deletion uncovered in the genomic DNA of the phenylketonuria proband is linked to the observed phenylketonuria phenotype as a result of a deletion of the newly identified liver-specific enhancer. Our systematic approach to the analysis and subsequent discovery of the novel deletion mutation may be applicable to the search for other mutations in the 5' regulatory region of phenylalanine hydroxylase and other genes.
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abstractThe liver-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Genetic defects in the gene result in the autosomal recessive disorder phenylketonuria. We have identified a phenylalanine hydroxylase mutation, designated as –4173_-407del, in a hyperphenylalaninemic patient with a 3.7-kb deletion in the 5'-flanking region of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Characterization of the deleted sequence has led to the identification of a novel liver-specific DNase I hypersensitive site located 3.3 kb upstream of the RNA initiation site of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. We show that this site comprises a liver-specific enhancer with cAMP responsiveness. We further show by mutational analysis that the enhancer carries a major hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-binding site important for the enhancer function but not for cAMP responsiveness. In transient transfection assays with a reporter gene, we demonstrate that a phenylalanine hydroxylase plasmid construct carrying the –4173_-407del mutation is severely impaired in phenylalanine hydroxylase transcriptional activity. Our data indicate that the 3.7-kb deletion uncovered in the genomic DNA of the phenylketonuria proband is linked to the observed phenylketonuria phenotype as a result of a deletion of the newly identified liver-specific enhancer. Our systematic approach to the analysis and subsequent discovery of the novel deletion mutation may be applicable to the search for other mutations in the 5' regulatory region of phenylalanine hydroxylase and other genes.
copBerlin/Heidelberg
pubSpringer-Verlag
doi10.1007/s00439-002-0677-7
pages235-243
date2002-03