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Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations on basalts at east pacific rise near 13°N: An SEM-EDS study

Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near 13°N were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). These encrustations are mainly composed of amorphous Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides forming laminated, spherical, porous aggre... Full description

Journal Title: Journal of Ocean University of China 2014, Vol.13(6), pp.917-925
Main Author: Wang, Xiaoyuan
Other Authors: Zeng, Zhigang , Qi, Haiyan , Chen, Shuai , Yin, Xuebo , Yang, Baoju
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 1672-5182 ; E-ISSN: 1993-5021 ; DOI: 10.1007/s11802-014-2358-2
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11802-014-2358-2
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recordid: springer_jour10.1007/s11802-014-2358-2
title: Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations on basalts at east pacific rise near 13°N: An SEM-EDS study
format: Article
creator:
  • Wang, Xiaoyuan
  • Zeng, Zhigang
  • Qi, Haiyan
  • Chen, Shuai
  • Yin, Xuebo
  • Yang, Baoju
subjects:
  • East Pacific Rise
  • Fe-Si-Mn encrustations
  • origin
  • pillow basalt
ispartof: Journal of Ocean University of China, 2014, Vol.13(6), pp.917-925
description: Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near 13°N were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). These encrustations are mainly composed of amorphous Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides forming laminated, spherical, porous aggregates with some biodetritus, anhydrite, nontronite, and feldspar particles. Anhydrite particles and nontronite crystals in the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations imply that the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide may have formed under relatively low- to high-temperature hydrothermal conditions. The Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations on pillow basalts are 1–2 mm thick. The growth rate of ferromanganese crusts in the survey area suggests that these encrustations are an unlikely result of hydrogenic deposition alone having a hydrothermal and (Fe/Mn ratio up to 7.7 and Fe/(Fe+Mn+Al) ratio exceeding 0.78) hydrogenic origin (0.22 Fe/Mn ratio close to the mean value of 0.7 for open-ocean seamount crusts). The varying Fe/Mn ratios indicate that the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations have formed through several stages of seafloor hydrothermalism. It is suggested that, at the initial formation stage, dense Fe-Si-oxyhydroxides with low Mn content deposit from a relatively reducing hydrothermal fluid, and then the loose Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides deposit on the Fe-Si-oxyhydroxides. As the oxidation degree of hydrothermal fluid increases and Si-oxide is inhibited, Mn-oxide will precipitate with Fe-oxyhydroxides.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 1672-5182 ; E-ISSN: 1993-5021 ; DOI: 10.1007/s11802-014-2358-2
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 1993-5021
  • 19935021
  • 1672-5182
  • 16725182
url: Link


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titleFe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations on basalts at east pacific rise near 13°N: An SEM-EDS study
creatorWang, Xiaoyuan ; Zeng, Zhigang ; Qi, Haiyan ; Chen, Shuai ; Yin, Xuebo ; Yang, Baoju
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subjectEast Pacific Rise ; Fe-Si-Mn encrustations ; origin ; pillow basalt
descriptionFe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near 13°N were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). These encrustations are mainly composed of amorphous Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides forming laminated, spherical, porous aggregates with some biodetritus, anhydrite, nontronite, and feldspar particles. Anhydrite particles and nontronite crystals in the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations imply that the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide may have formed under relatively low- to high-temperature hydrothermal conditions. The Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations on pillow basalts are 1–2 mm thick. The growth rate of ferromanganese crusts in the survey area suggests that these encrustations are an unlikely result of hydrogenic deposition alone having a hydrothermal and (Fe/Mn ratio up to 7.7 and Fe/(Fe+Mn+Al) ratio exceeding 0.78) hydrogenic origin (0.22 Fe/Mn ratio close to the mean value of 0.7 for open-ocean seamount crusts). The varying Fe/Mn ratios indicate that the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations have formed through several stages of seafloor hydrothermalism. It is suggested that, at the initial formation stage, dense Fe-Si-oxyhydroxides with low Mn content deposit from a relatively reducing hydrothermal fluid, and then the loose Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides deposit on the Fe-Si-oxyhydroxides. As the oxidation degree of hydrothermal fluid increases and Si-oxide is inhibited, Mn-oxide will precipitate with Fe-oxyhydroxides.
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titleFe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations on basalts at east pacific rise near 13°N: An SEM-EDS study
descriptionFe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near 13°N were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). These encrustations are mainly composed of amorphous Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides forming laminated, spherical, porous aggregates with some biodetritus, anhydrite, nontronite, and feldspar particles. Anhydrite particles and nontronite crystals in the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations imply that the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide may have formed under relatively low- to high-temperature hydrothermal conditions. The Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations on pillow basalts are 1–2 mm thick. The growth rate of ferromanganese crusts in the survey area suggests that these encrustations are an unlikely result of hydrogenic deposition alone having a hydrothermal and (Fe/Mn ratio up to 7.7 and Fe/(Fe+Mn+Al) ratio exceeding 0.78) hydrogenic origin (0.22 Fe/Mn ratio close to the mean value of 0.7 for open-ocean seamount crusts). The varying Fe/Mn ratios indicate that the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations have formed through several stages of seafloor hydrothermalism. It is suggested that, at the initial formation stage, dense Fe-Si-oxyhydroxides with low Mn content deposit from a relatively reducing hydrothermal fluid, and then the loose Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides deposit on the Fe-Si-oxyhydroxides. As the oxidation degree of hydrothermal fluid increases and Si-oxide is inhibited, Mn-oxide will precipitate with Fe-oxyhydroxides.
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abstractFe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near 13°N were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). These encrustations are mainly composed of amorphous Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides forming laminated, spherical, porous aggregates with some biodetritus, anhydrite, nontronite, and feldspar particles. Anhydrite particles and nontronite crystals in the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations imply that the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide may have formed under relatively low- to high-temperature hydrothermal conditions. The Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations on pillow basalts are 1–2 mm thick. The growth rate of ferromanganese crusts in the survey area suggests that these encrustations are an unlikely result of hydrogenic deposition alone having a hydrothermal and (Fe/Mn ratio up to 7.7 and Fe/(Fe+Mn+Al) ratio exceeding 0.78) hydrogenic origin (0.22 Fe/Mn ratio close to the mean value of 0.7 for open-ocean seamount crusts). The varying Fe/Mn ratios indicate that the Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxide encrustations have formed through several stages of seafloor hydrothermalism. It is suggested that, at the initial formation stage, dense Fe-Si-oxyhydroxides with low Mn content deposit from a relatively reducing hydrothermal fluid, and then the loose Fe-Si-Mn-oxyhydroxides deposit on the Fe-Si-oxyhydroxides. As the oxidation degree of hydrothermal fluid increases and Si-oxide is inhibited, Mn-oxide will precipitate with Fe-oxyhydroxides.
copHeidelberg
pubScience Press
doi10.1007/s11802-014-2358-2
pages917-925
date2014-12