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Barriers to Gender-Affirming Care for Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Individuals

Gender-affirming care, including hormone therapy, “top” (e.g., chest reconstruction surgery) and “bottom” (e.g., vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, etc.) surgeries, and puberty blockers, is an efficacious treatment of gender dysphoria for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individu... Full description

Journal Title: Sexuality Research and Social Policy 2018, Vol.15(1), pp.48-59
Main Author: Puckett, Jae
Other Authors: Cleary, Peter , Rossman, Kinton , Mustanski, Brian , Newcomb, Michael
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 1868-9884 ; E-ISSN: 1553-6610 ; DOI: 10.1007/s13178-017-0295-8
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13178-017-0295-8
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recordid: springer_jour10.1007/s13178-017-0295-8
title: Barriers to Gender-Affirming Care for Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Individuals
format: Article
creator:
  • Puckett, Jae
  • Cleary, Peter
  • Rossman, Kinton
  • Mustanski, Brian
  • Newcomb, Michael
subjects:
  • Transgender
  • Gender nonconforming
  • Genderqueer
  • Gender-affirming care
  • Barriers to transition
  • Healthcare stigma
ispartof: Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 2018, Vol.15(1), pp.48-59
description: Gender-affirming care, including hormone therapy, “top” (e.g., chest reconstruction surgery) and “bottom” (e.g., vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, etc.) surgeries, and puberty blockers, is an efficacious treatment of gender dysphoria for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. However, many TGNC people encounter significant barriers in accessing gender-affirming care, which we detail via results from on online study. Participants included 256 TGNC individuals (78.9% White, ages 16–73, M age  = 28.4). Among participants, 61.3% were receiving hormone therapy, 22.7% had undergone top surgery, and 5.5% had undergone bottom surgery. Open-ended responses ( n  = 201) were thematically analyzed and common barriers included finances and insurance issues, a lack of service availability, and fears or worries. Participants reported various systemic issues and incidents of bias within medical and mental health fields, as well as a lack of medical provider awareness and education. Other themes were interpersonal barriers (e.g., fears of rejection); age and need of parental consent for minors; other medical issues; and a lack of information about how to acquire care. These findings can be utilized to educate professionals in medical and mental health fields about barriers their TGNC patients may encounter in receiving affirming care and suggest a number of ways to improve access to these services.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 1868-9884 ; E-ISSN: 1553-6610 ; DOI: 10.1007/s13178-017-0295-8
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 1553-6610
  • 15536610
  • 1868-9884
  • 18689884
url: Link


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descriptionGender-affirming care, including hormone therapy, “top” (e.g., chest reconstruction surgery) and “bottom” (e.g., vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, etc.) surgeries, and puberty blockers, is an efficacious treatment of gender dysphoria for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. However, many TGNC people encounter significant barriers in accessing gender-affirming care, which we detail via results from on online study. Participants included 256 TGNC individuals (78.9% White, ages 16–73, M age  = 28.4). Among participants, 61.3% were receiving hormone therapy, 22.7% had undergone top surgery, and 5.5% had undergone bottom surgery. Open-ended responses ( n  = 201) were thematically analyzed and common barriers included finances and insurance issues, a lack of service availability, and fears or worries. Participants reported various systemic issues and incidents of bias within medical and mental health fields, as well as a lack of medical provider awareness and education. Other themes were interpersonal barriers (e.g., fears of rejection); age and need of parental consent for minors; other medical issues; and a lack of information about how to acquire care. These findings can be utilized to educate professionals in medical and mental health fields about barriers their TGNC patients may encounter in receiving affirming care and suggest a number of ways to improve access to these services.
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abstractGender-affirming care, including hormone therapy, “top” (e.g., chest reconstruction surgery) and “bottom” (e.g., vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, etc.) surgeries, and puberty blockers, is an efficacious treatment of gender dysphoria for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. However, many TGNC people encounter significant barriers in accessing gender-affirming care, which we detail via results from on online study. Participants included 256 TGNC individuals (78.9% White, ages 16–73, M age  = 28.4). Among participants, 61.3% were receiving hormone therapy, 22.7% had undergone top surgery, and 5.5% had undergone bottom surgery. Open-ended responses ( n  = 201) were thematically analyzed and common barriers included finances and insurance issues, a lack of service availability, and fears or worries. Participants reported various systemic issues and incidents of bias within medical and mental health fields, as well as a lack of medical provider awareness and education. Other themes were interpersonal barriers (e.g., fears of rejection); age and need of parental consent for minors; other medical issues; and a lack of information about how to acquire care. These findings can be utilized to educate professionals in medical and mental health fields about barriers their TGNC patients may encounter in receiving affirming care and suggest a number of ways to improve access to these services.
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doi10.1007/s13178-017-0295-8
pages48-59
date2018-03