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Ion–Solvent Complexes Promote Gas Evolution from Electrolytes on a Sodium Metal Anode

Lithium and sodium metal batteries are considered as promising next‐generation energy storage devices due to their ultrahigh energy densities. The high reactivity of alkali metal toward organic solvents and salts results in side reactions, which further lead to undesirable electrolyte depletion, cel... Full description

Journal Title: Angewandte Chemie International Edition 15 January 2018, Vol.57(3), pp.734-737
Main Author: Chen, Xiang
Other Authors: Shen, Xin , Li, Bo , Peng, Hong‐Jie , Cheng, Xin‐Bing , Li, Bo‐Quan , Zhang, Xue‐Qiang , Huang, Jia‐Qi , Zhang, Qiang
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language: English
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 1433-7851 ; E-ISSN: 1521-3773 ; DOI: 10.1002/anie.201711552
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recordid: wj10.1002/anie.201711552
title: Ion–Solvent Complexes Promote Gas Evolution from Electrolytes on a Sodium Metal Anode
format: Article
creator:
  • Chen, Xiang
  • Shen, Xin
  • Li, Bo
  • Peng, Hong‐Jie
  • Cheng, Xin‐Bing
  • Li, Bo‐Quan
  • Zhang, Xue‐Qiang
  • Huang, Jia‐Qi
  • Zhang, Qiang
subjects:
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolytes
  • First-Principles Calculations
  • Gas Evolution
  • Alkali Metal Batteries
ispartof: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 15 January 2018, Vol.57(3), pp.734-737
description: Lithium and sodium metal batteries are considered as promising next‐generation energy storage devices due to their ultrahigh energy densities. The high reactivity of alkali metal toward organic solvents and salts results in side reactions, which further lead to undesirable electrolyte depletion, cell failure, and evolution of flammable gas. Herein, first‐principles calculations and in situ optical microscopy are used to study the mechanism of organic electrolyte decomposition and gas evolution on a sodium metal anode. Once complexed with sodium ions, solvent molecules show a reduced LUMO, which facilitates the electrolyte decomposition and gas evolution. Such a general mechanism is also applicable to lithium and other metal anodes. We uncover the critical role of ion–solvent complexation for the stability of alkali metal anodes, reveal the mechanism of electrolyte gassing, and provide a mechanistic guidance to electrolyte and lithium/sodium anode design for safe rechargeable batteries. : Ion–solvent complexes in alkali metal batteries have been studied by first‐principles calculations and in situ optical microscopy. The ion–solvent complexes have low LUMOs and are readily reduced on an alkali metal anode. A general mechanism for organic electrolyte decomposition and gas evolution was discovered.
language: eng
source:
identifier: ISSN: 1433-7851 ; E-ISSN: 1521-3773 ; DOI: 10.1002/anie.201711552
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 1433-7851
  • 14337851
  • 1521-3773
  • 15213773
url: Link


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titleIon–Solvent Complexes Promote Gas Evolution from Electrolytes on a Sodium Metal Anode
creatorChen, Xiang ; Shen, Xin ; Li, Bo ; Peng, Hong‐Jie ; Cheng, Xin‐Bing ; Li, Bo‐Quan ; Zhang, Xue‐Qiang ; Huang, Jia‐Qi ; Zhang, Qiang
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subjectElectrochemistry ; Electrolytes ; First-Principles Calculations ; Gas Evolution ; Alkali Metal Batteries
descriptionLithium and sodium metal batteries are considered as promising next‐generation energy storage devices due to their ultrahigh energy densities. The high reactivity of alkali metal toward organic solvents and salts results in side reactions, which further lead to undesirable electrolyte depletion, cell failure, and evolution of flammable gas. Herein, first‐principles calculations and in situ optical microscopy are used to study the mechanism of organic electrolyte decomposition and gas evolution on a sodium metal anode. Once complexed with sodium ions, solvent molecules show a reduced LUMO, which facilitates the electrolyte decomposition and gas evolution. Such a general mechanism is also applicable to lithium and other metal anodes. We uncover the critical role of ion–solvent complexation for the stability of alkali metal anodes, reveal the mechanism of electrolyte gassing, and provide a mechanistic guidance to electrolyte and lithium/sodium anode design for safe rechargeable batteries. : Ion–solvent complexes in alkali metal batteries have been studied by first‐principles calculations and in situ optical microscopy. The ion–solvent complexes have low LUMOs and are readily reduced on an alkali metal anode. A general mechanism for organic electrolyte decomposition and gas evolution was discovered.
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titleIon–Solvent Complexes Promote Gas Evolution from Electrolytes on a Sodium Metal Anode
descriptionLithium and sodium metal batteries are considered as promising next‐generation energy storage devices due to their ultrahigh energy densities. The high reactivity of alkali metal toward organic solvents and salts results in side reactions, which further lead to undesirable electrolyte depletion, cell failure, and evolution of flammable gas. Herein, first‐principles calculations and in situ optical microscopy are used to study the mechanism of organic electrolyte decomposition and gas evolution on a sodium metal anode. Once complexed with sodium ions, solvent molecules show a reduced LUMO, which facilitates the electrolyte decomposition and gas evolution. Such a general mechanism is also applicable to lithium and other metal anodes. We uncover the critical role of ion–solvent complexation for the stability of alkali metal anodes, reveal the mechanism of electrolyte gassing, and provide a mechanistic guidance to electrolyte and lithium/sodium anode design for safe rechargeable batteries. : Ion–solvent complexes in alkali metal batteries have been studied by first‐principles calculations and in situ optical microscopy. The ion–solvent complexes have low LUMOs and are readily reduced on an alkali metal anode. A general mechanism for organic electrolyte decomposition and gas evolution was discovered.
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abstractLithium and sodium metal batteries are considered as promising next‐generation energy storage devices due to their ultrahigh energy densities. The high reactivity of alkali metal toward organic solvents and salts results in side reactions, which further lead to undesirable electrolyte depletion, cell failure, and evolution of flammable gas. Herein, first‐principles calculations and in situ optical microscopy are used to study the mechanism of organic electrolyte decomposition and gas evolution on a sodium metal anode. Once complexed with sodium ions, solvent molecules show a reduced LUMO, which facilitates the electrolyte decomposition and gas evolution. Such a general mechanism is also applicable to lithium and other metal anodes. We uncover the critical role of ion–solvent complexation for the stability of alkali metal anodes, reveal the mechanism of electrolyte gassing, and provide a mechanistic guidance to electrolyte and lithium/sodium anode design for safe rechargeable batteries. : Ion–solvent complexes in alkali metal batteries have been studied by first‐principles calculations and in situ optical microscopy. The ion–solvent complexes have low LUMOs and are readily reduced on an alkali metal anode. A general mechanism for organic electrolyte decomposition and gas evolution was discovered.
doi10.1002/anie.201711552
pages734-737
date2018-01-15