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Response of the Diurnal Cycle of Summer Rainfall to Large‐Scale Circulation and Coastal Upwelling at Hainan, South China

The modulation of coastal rainfall at Hainan by large‐scale circulation and coastal upwelling is studied using observations and numerical modeling. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data show that the monthly mean rainfall off southern Hainan was considerably higher in August 2010 than in August 2... Full description

Journal Title: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 16 April 2019, Vol.124(7), pp.3702-3725
Main Author: Shi, Rui
Other Authors: Cai, Qinbo , Dong, Lingyu , Guo, Xinyu , Wang, Dongxiao
Format: Electronic Article Electronic Article
Language:
Subjects:
ID: ISSN: 2169-897X ; E-ISSN: 2169-8996 ; DOI: 10.1029/2018JD029528
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recordid: wj10.1029/2018JD029528
title: Response of the Diurnal Cycle of Summer Rainfall to Large‐Scale Circulation and Coastal Upwelling at Hainan, South China
format: Article
creator:
  • Shi, Rui
  • Cai, Qinbo
  • Dong, Lingyu
  • Guo, Xinyu
  • Wang, Dongxiao
subjects:
  • Weather Forecasting
  • Land Breezes
  • Offshore
  • Sea Surface Temperature
  • Summer
  • Summer Rainfall
  • Surface Temperature
  • Upwelling
  • Humidity
  • Land Breezes
  • Computer Simulation
  • Weather Forecasting
  • Humidity
  • Numerical Simulations
  • Humidity
  • Summer
  • Upwelling Water
  • Tropical Rainfall
  • Mathematical Models
  • Diurnal Cycle
  • Stability
  • El Nino Phenomena
  • Upwelling
  • Upwelling
  • Upwelling
  • Humidity
  • Rainfall
  • Coastal Circulation
  • Convective Instability
  • Sea Surface
  • Monthly Rainfall
  • Coastal Environments
  • Breezes
  • Rainfall
  • Weather Forecasting
  • El Nino
  • Tropical Environment
  • Humidity
  • Coastal Upwelling
  • Instability
  • Modelling
  • Rainfall
  • Coastal Upwelling
  • Instability
  • Atmospheric Models
  • Prediction
  • Amplification
  • El Nino
  • El Nino
  • Ocean Circulation
  • Night
  • La Nina
  • Humidity
  • Diurnal Variations
  • Rainfall
  • Surface Temperature
  • Sea Surface Temperature
ispartof: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 16 April 2019, Vol.124(7), pp.3702-3725
description: The modulation of coastal rainfall at Hainan by large‐scale circulation and coastal upwelling is studied using observations and numerical modeling. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data show that the monthly mean rainfall off southern Hainan was considerably higher in August 2010 than in August 2011. The main cause of this difference is an intensification of offshore rainfall from midnight to early morning. Compared with the multiyear (2000–2017) average field, reanalysis data show that there is an apparent increase in atmospheric humidity in August 2010. During this time, a moderate El Niño was decaying and a new La Niña event was developing, so a significant adjustment of the large‐scale circulation was observed in the western Pacific. The resulting anomalous onshore wind depresses the development of upwelling, leading to a relatively warm sea surface temperature off the south coast of Hainan, which in turn enhances the land‐sea thermal contrast and land breeze at night. Decreases in upwelling intensity and asymmetric intensification of nocturnal and daytime offshore rainfall are confirmed not only in the summer of 2010 but also in the summer of 2003. Numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model verify that the enhanced land breeze ultimately leads to pronounced coastal rainfall off southern Hainan at night. The results indicate that localized surface convergence associated with the sea and land breezes may be more important than the atmospheric humidity and convective instability in modulating the diurnal cycle of rainfall for tropical islands. A pronounced increase of offshore rainfall was observed at southern Hainan in the summer of 2010 Coastal upwelling was suppressed by southeasterly wind anomalies in the summer of 2003, 2010, and 2016 Warm SST anomalies due to weak upwelling produces a stronger land breeze and convergence over the sea, ultimately leading to more rainfall
language:
source:
identifier: ISSN: 2169-897X ; E-ISSN: 2169-8996 ; DOI: 10.1029/2018JD029528
fulltext: fulltext
issn:
  • 2169-897X
  • 2169897X
  • 2169-8996
  • 21698996
url: Link


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titleResponse of the Diurnal Cycle of Summer Rainfall to Large‐Scale Circulation and Coastal Upwelling at Hainan, South China
creatorShi, Rui ; Cai, Qinbo ; Dong, Lingyu ; Guo, Xinyu ; Wang, Dongxiao
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descriptionThe modulation of coastal rainfall at Hainan by large‐scale circulation and coastal upwelling is studied using observations and numerical modeling. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data show that the monthly mean rainfall off southern Hainan was considerably higher in August 2010 than in August 2011. The main cause of this difference is an intensification of offshore rainfall from midnight to early morning. Compared with the multiyear (2000–2017) average field, reanalysis data show that there is an apparent increase in atmospheric humidity in August 2010. During this time, a moderate El Niño was decaying and a new La Niña event was developing, so a significant adjustment of the large‐scale circulation was observed in the western Pacific. The resulting anomalous onshore wind depresses the development of upwelling, leading to a relatively warm sea surface temperature off the south coast of Hainan, which in turn enhances the land‐sea thermal contrast and land breeze at night. Decreases in upwelling intensity and asymmetric intensification of nocturnal and daytime offshore rainfall are confirmed not only in the summer of 2010 but also in the summer of 2003. Numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model verify that the enhanced land breeze ultimately leads to pronounced coastal rainfall off southern Hainan at night. The results indicate that localized surface convergence associated with the sea and land breezes may be more important than the atmospheric humidity and convective instability in modulating the diurnal cycle of rainfall for tropical islands. A pronounced increase of offshore rainfall was observed at southern Hainan in the summer of 2010 Coastal upwelling was suppressed by southeasterly wind anomalies in the summer of 2003, 2010, and 2016 Warm SST anomalies due to weak upwelling produces a stronger land breeze and convergence over the sea, ultimately leading to more rainfall
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subjectWeather Forecasting ; Land Breezes ; Offshore ; Sea Surface Temperature ; Summer ; Summer Rainfall ; Surface Temperature ; Upwelling ; Humidity ; Land Breezes ; Computer Simulation ; Weather Forecasting ; Humidity ; Numerical Simulations ; Humidity ; Summer ; Upwelling Water ; Tropical Rainfall ; Mathematical Models ; Diurnal Cycle ; Stability ; El Nino Phenomena ; Upwelling ; Upwelling ; Upwelling ; Humidity ; Rainfall ; Coastal Circulation ; Convective Instability ; Sea Surface ; Monthly Rainfall ; Coastal Environments ; Breezes ; Rainfall ; Weather Forecasting ; El Nino ; Tropical Environment ; Humidity ; Coastal Upwelling ; Instability ; Modelling ; Rainfall ; Coastal Upwelling ; Instability ; Atmospheric Models ; Prediction ; Amplification ; El Nino ; El Nino ; Ocean Circulation ; Night ; La Nina ; Humidity ; Diurnal Variations ; Rainfall ; Surface Temperature ; Sea Surface Temperature;
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titleResponse of the Diurnal Cycle of Summer Rainfall to Large‐Scale Circulation and Coastal Upwelling at Hainan, South China
descriptionThe modulation of coastal rainfall at Hainan by large‐scale circulation and coastal upwelling is studied using observations and numerical modeling. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data show that the monthly mean rainfall off southern Hainan was considerably higher in August 2010 than in August 2011. The main cause of this difference is an intensification of offshore rainfall from midnight to early morning. Compared with the multiyear (2000–2017) average field, reanalysis data show that there is an apparent increase in atmospheric humidity in August 2010. During this time, a moderate El Niño was decaying and a new La Niña event was developing, so a significant adjustment of the large‐scale circulation was observed in the western Pacific. The resulting anomalous onshore wind depresses the development of upwelling, leading to a relatively warm sea surface temperature off the south coast of Hainan, which in turn enhances the land‐sea thermal contrast and land breeze at night. Decreases in upwelling intensity and asymmetric intensification of nocturnal and daytime offshore rainfall are confirmed not only in the summer of 2010 but also in the summer of 2003. Numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model verify that the enhanced land breeze ultimately leads to pronounced coastal rainfall off southern Hainan at night. The results indicate that localized surface convergence associated with the sea and land breezes may be more important than the atmospheric humidity and convective instability in modulating the diurnal cycle of rainfall for tropical islands. A pronounced increase of offshore rainfall was observed at southern Hainan in the summer of 2010 Coastal upwelling was suppressed by southeasterly wind anomalies in the summer of 2003, 2010, and 2016 Warm SST anomalies due to weak upwelling produces a stronger land breeze and convergence over the sea, ultimately leading to more rainfall
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abstractThe modulation of coastal rainfall at Hainan by large‐scale circulation and coastal upwelling is studied using observations and numerical modeling. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data show that the monthly mean rainfall off southern Hainan was considerably higher in August 2010 than in August 2011. The main cause of this difference is an intensification of offshore rainfall from midnight to early morning. Compared with the multiyear (2000–2017) average field, reanalysis data show that there is an apparent increase in atmospheric humidity in August 2010. During this time, a moderate El Niño was decaying and a new La Niña event was developing, so a significant adjustment of the large‐scale circulation was observed in the western Pacific. The resulting anomalous onshore wind depresses the development of upwelling, leading to a relatively warm sea surface temperature off the south coast of Hainan, which in turn enhances the land‐sea thermal contrast and land breeze at night. Decreases in upwelling intensity and asymmetric intensification of nocturnal and daytime offshore rainfall are confirmed not only in the summer of 2010 but also in the summer of 2003. Numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model verify that the enhanced land breeze ultimately leads to pronounced coastal rainfall off southern Hainan at night. The results indicate that localized surface convergence associated with the sea and land breezes may be more important than the atmospheric humidity and convective instability in modulating the diurnal cycle of rainfall for tropical islands. A pronounced increase of offshore rainfall was observed at southern Hainan in the summer of 2010 Coastal upwelling was suppressed by southeasterly wind anomalies in the summer of 2003, 2010, and 2016 Warm SST anomalies due to weak upwelling produces a stronger land breeze and convergence over the sea, ultimately leading to more rainfall
doi10.1029/2018JD029528
orcidid0000-0001-9618-127X
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date2019-04-16